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ISSN 打印: 1040-8401
ISSN 在线: 2162-6472

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DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v26.i2.40
pages 149-188

Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses of the Central Nervous System

Samantha L. Bailey
Department of Microbiology-Immunology and The Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611; Authors contributed equally to this review
Pamela A. Carpentier
Department of Microbiology-Immunology and The Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611; Authors contributed equally to this review
Eileen J. McMahon
Biology Department, Westmont College, 955 LaPaz Rd., Santa Barbara, CA 93108
Wendy Smith Begolka
Department of Microbiology-Immunology and The Interdepartmental Immunobiology Center, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611
Stephen D. Miller
Departments of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611

ABSTRACT

The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized organ. The blood-brain barrier regulates the passage of molecules and cells into the CNS. Robust immune responses occur in the CNS even though there is normally an absence of MHC molecules, lack of normal lymphatic drainage, and reduced immune surveillance. This review discusses the immunological elements of the healthy CNS and the pattern of responses that evolve during innate and adaptive immunity in this organ. We also discuss the contribution of astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, microglia, macrophages, and dendritic cells to the integrity and pathology of the CNS during CD4+ Т-cell autoimmune responses directed against neuroantigens.


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