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Linking Autophagy and the Dysregulated NFκB/ SNAIL/YY1/RKIP/PTEN Loop in Cancer: Therapeutic Implications
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1747
The role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of various cancers has been well documented in many reports. Autophagy in cancer cells regulates cell proliferation, viability, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and responses to chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. These manifestations are the result of various regulatory gene products that govern autophagic, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms. In several human cancer cell models, the presence of a dysregulated circuit—namely, NFκB/SNAIL/YY1/RKIP/PTEN—that plays a major role in the regulation of tumor cell unique characteristics just listed for autophagy-regulated activities. Accordingly, the autophagic mechanism and the dysregulated circuit in cancer cells share many of the same properties and activities. Thus, it has been hypothesized that there must exist a biochemical/molecular link between the two. The present review describes the link and the association of each gene product of the dysregulated circuit with the autophagic mechanism and delineates the presence of crosstalk. Crosstalk between autophagy and the dysregulated circuit is significant and has important implications in the development of targeted therapies aimed at either autophagy or the dysregulated gene products in cancer cells.
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