ISSN 打印: 1064-2285
ISSN 在线: 2162-6561

# 传热学

DOI: 10.1615/HeatTransRes.2018025569
pages 1837-1848

## EXPLORATION OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS SYNTHESIS BY Cu–Ag/WATER HYBRID-NANOFLUIDS

Mohsan Hassan
Department of Mathematics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, 54000, Pakistan
Marin Marin
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500093 Brasov, Romania
Rahmat Ellahi
Center for Modeling & Computer Simulation, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261, Saudi Arabia; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, FBAS, IIUI, Islamabad, Pakistan
Sultan Z. Alamri
Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science Taibah University, Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia

### ABSTRACT

The present study deals with convective heat transfer performance and fluid flow characteristics of Cu–Ag/water hybrid nanofluids. A geometric model of an inverted cone is used. The mathematical model consists of nonlinear governing equations along with associated boundary conditions reduced to a nondimensional form by using appropriate transformation, Boussinesq and boundary-layer approximations. Analytical solutions are obtained for velocity and temperature profiles. The convergence analysis and error of norm 2 are also presented to check the validity of the results. The effects of nanoparticles volume fraction, hybrid nanoparticles compactness ratio on velocity, temperature, thermophysical properties, convective heat transfer coefficient, and skin friction coefficient are illustrated in graphical and tabular form. A comparison of hybrid nanofluid with single material nanofluids is also made and it is realized that the hybrid nanofluid has greater thermal conductivity and improved convective heat transfer characteristics as compared to the base fluid and nanofluids. The proposed model can help in designing a way to accelerate and mix liquids in the chemical industry.

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