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多孔介质期刊
影响因子: 1.49 5年影响因子: 1.159 SJR: 0.43 SNIP: 0.671 CiteScore™: 1.58

ISSN 打印: 1091-028X
ISSN 在线: 1934-0508

多孔介质期刊

DOI: 10.1615/JPorMedia.v1.i1.20
pages 1-29

Capillary Effects and Multiphase Flow in Porous Media

F. A. L. Dullien
Porous Media Research Institute, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L3G1, Canada

ABSTRACT

Against a background of the topologies of the immiscible fluids in porous media, a few recent advances in multiphase flow involving capillarity have been briefly reviewed. 1) Measurement and interpretation of hydrodynamic coupling in cocurrent two-phase flow: In steady flow, in the absence of a saturation gradient, coupling of a purely kinematic character can exist in low permeability media at low wetting fluid saturations when the wetting phase, of a lower viscosity than the nonwetting phase, is continuous only on the pore walls in the form of thick films. As a result of this lubricating effect, the flow of the nonwetting phase is increased, whereas the flow of the wetting phase is unaffected. In the presence of a saturation gradient, however, significant viscous coupling between two fluids of the same viscosity has been measured in experiments in a sand pack where the pressure gradient in one of the two fluids was kept zero, while the other fluid was pumped at a constant rate. 2) General representation of the evolution of saturation profiles in waterfloods in different porous media in terms of two scaling parameters: The viscosity ratio and the ratio of viscous-to-capillary forces CA = Q/Q0 (Q is the constant injection rate of water in the water flood and Q0 is the rate of spontaneous imbibition of water into the same system at zero time). 3) Imbibition of blobs of nonspreading oil (negative spreading coefficient) in film form over thick water films present in the edges and/or grooves of pore walls: Oil blobs that are surrounded by water and trapped by capillary forces spread, after draining the bulk of the water, on the surface of the remaining thick water films (i) if the spreading coefficient is positive by the known laws of spreading and (ii) by capillary forces if the spreading coefficient is negative. The conditions controlling the second kind of spreading (ii) have been quantified by using classical Gibbs-free energy treatment and the predictions have been verified by experiment.


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