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Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Engineering

ISSN 打印: 2572-9896
ISSN 在线: 2572-990X

Catalysis in Green Chemistry and Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CatalGreenChemEng.2019030634
pages 55-65


P. N. Dange
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai, 400019, India
Virendra K. Rathod
Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga (E), Mumbai, 400019, India


This study investigates the reaction of butyric acid with ethanol using heterogeneous catalyst amberlyst-15. Experiments were conducted in a three-necked glass reactor in the temperature range of 323 to 353 K with provision for stirrer and condenser. Investigated experimental parameters were temperature, mole ratios of alcohol and acid used, loading of catalyst, stirrer speed, and amount of molecular sieves. The butyric acid equilibrium conversion reached 92.8% at 353 K at ethanol-to-butyric acid mole ratio of unity; amount of catalyst added, 3 g; molecular sieves, 4 g; and stirrer speed, 450 rpm. Equilibrium conversion and rate of forward reaction increased with temperature and catalyst loading. Addition of molecular sieves appeared to have a favorable effect on equilibrium conversion since it removed water formed in the reaction. Also, varying speeds of the stirrer showed the absence of resistance for external mass transfer during the reaction. The surface reaction rate constant was predicted using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson model and was used to analyze thermodynamic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the resin catalyst after the esterification shows that the catalyst was thermally and mechanically stable for the reaction temperatures.


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