## TURBULENCE STRUCTURE, FRICTION DRAG AND PRESSURE DRAG DUE TO TURBULENT FLOW OVER ANGLED WAVY SURFACES
## AbstractWe carried out direct numerical simulation for turbulent flow over angled wavy walls. The walls are models of the folded areas of skin which appear on the abdominal parts of fast swimming dolphins. The angles between the streamwise direction and the ridgelines of the wavy walls were 90, 63.4 and 45 degrees. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength in the streamwise direction of the wavy wall was 0.0064. The computational results show that the mean velocity in the transverse direction becomes predominant as the angle decreases. This is due to the occurrence of secondary flow along the ridgelines of the wavy walls. It is also found that the wall-shear stress tensor decreases with the decrease in the angle. This is because the contribution of the Reynolds-shear-stress component |

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