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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Impact-faktor: 1.625 5-jähriger Impact-Faktor: 1.63 SJR: 0.402 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 2.3

ISSN Druckformat: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017020927
pages 171-190

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Possible Chemical and Biological Causes: A Review

Pinar Erkekoglu
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey
Didem Oral
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey
Ming-Wei Chao
Chung Yuan Christian University, Department of Bioscience Technology, Zhongli district, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Belmar Kocer-Gumusel
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology, 06100 Ankara, Turkey


The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process. In HCC, progressive and morphologically distinct preneoplastic lesions/alterations associated with chronic liver injury, inflammation, hepatocellular degeneration/regeneration, necrosis, and small-cell dysplasia can be observed. The incidence of HCC exhibits regional and ethnic differences. Several cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals are suggested to be the underlying causes of HCC−for example, acrylamide, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and dietary contaminants (aflatoxins, ochratoxins). Also suggested are substances of abuse (alcohol) and biological agents, such as hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). These can act through genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms. This review will shortly address the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of HCC and focus on cytotoxic and DNA-damaging chemicals and biological agents, exposure to which are suggested to lead to HCC initiation, promotion, and/or progression.

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