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International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.28 SNIP: 0.421 CiteScore™: 0.9

ISSN Druckformat: 2150-766X
ISSN Online: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.2017011503
pages 339-350

REACTIONS OF POWDERED ALUMINUM WITH EXPLOSIVES THAT SELECTIVELY FORM CARBON DIOXIDE OR WATER AS OXIDIZERS

Bryce C. Tappan
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Larry G. Hill
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Virginia W. Manner
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Steve J. Pemberton
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Mark A. Lieber
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Carl Johnson
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
V. Eric Sanders
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA

ABSTRAKT

Powdered aluminum is a common additive to energetic materials but its reaction rate at very high temperatures as well as high pressures in specific oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide or water is little understood. Aluminum reaction kinetics in carbon dioxide or steam has been studied under various reaction conditions; however, difficulties arise in the more specific study of Al oxidation at the high pressures and temperatures in detonation reactions. To study these reactions, small particle size Al or the inert surrogate, LiF, was added to the energetic material benzotrifuroxan (BTF) or a hydrazinium nitrate/hydrazine eutectic. As a hydrogen-free material, BTF selectively forms CO2 as the major oxidizing species for post-detonation Al oxidation and hydrazinium nitrate/hydrazine (a carbon-free material that selectively forms H2O) as the major oxidizing species. Utilizing the copper cylinder expansion test, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation of state was solved to determine the temperature, pressure, and energies at specific time periods, in addition to the Gurney energies, which enable elucidation of the aluminum reaction extent. By comparing the Al oxidation with LiF, the data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast timescale, beginning and completing between 1 and 25 μs.


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