Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.149 SNIP: 0.16 CiteScore™: 0.29

ISSN Druckformat: 2150-766X
ISSN Online: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.2019028022
pages 171-183


Volker Weiser
Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany
Stefan Kelzenberg
Fraunhofer-Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Straße 7 76327 Pfinztal Germany
Sebastian Knapp
Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany
A. Koleczko
Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany
E. Roth
Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie ICT, 76327 Pfinztal, Germany


The ignition of modern gun propellants is still a challenging task that requires new igniter compositions adapted to the particular type of propellant. Pyrotechnic research always looks for new components which may help to improve the performance of an igniter. As an example, potassium dinitramide (KDN) features in a high potential as effective pyrotechnic oxidizer. In this study, a B/KDN composition is compared with the equivalent B/KNO3 composition, black powder, and a double-base igniter concerning particle temperatures and their igniter properties. The plume jet of all igniter compositions was investigated in a window bomb at constant pressure (0.1 to 10 MPa N2) and its interaction with single grains of standard gun powders (double-base, LOVA) and an ammonium dinitramide (ADN) solid propellant formulation. The ignition behavior was characterized using the ignition delay times as a function of the pressure determined from high-speed video and fast emission spectroscopy evaluation. As expected, the ignition delay times decrease drastically with pressure. Igniter compositions producing plume jets including fine particles ignited all propellants faster and at lower pressure deflagration limits (PDL) as the particle-free composition. Especially at elevated pressure, B/KDN produces plume jets including a high number of fine particles and in most cases resulted in the shortest ignition delay times.


  1. Berger, B., Bircher, H., Studer, M., and Walchli, M., (2005) Alkali Dinitramide Salts. Part 1: Synthesis and Characterization, Propel. Explos. Pyrotech., 30(3), pp. 184-190. DOI: 10.1002/prep.200500003.

  2. Berger, B.P., Mathieu, J., and Folly, P., (2006) Alkali-Dinitramide Salts Part 2: Oxidizers for Special Pyrotechnic Applications, Prop., Explos, Pyrotech, 31(4), pp. 269-277. DOI: 10.1002/prep.200600036.

  3. Butcher, R.J., (1997) A New Class of Flexible Energetic Salts: The Crystal Structures of the Ammonium, Lithium, Potassium, and Cesium Salts of Dinitramide, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 119(40), pp. 9411-9416. DOI: 10.1021/ja9709280.

  4. Claridge, R.P., Griffiths, T.T., and Johnson, N.A.D., (2008) Potassium Dinitramide as a Pyrotechnic Oxidant for Red Flare Applications, in 35th Intl. Pyrotechnics Seminar (IPS), International Pyrotechnic Society, July 13-18, Fort Collins, CO.

  5. DeLuca, L.T., Bohn, M.A., Gettwert, V., Weiser, V., and Tagliabue, C., (2017a) Innovative Solid Rocket Propellant Formulations for Space Propulsion, in Energetic Materials Research, Applications, and New Technologies, R.F.B. Goncalves, J.A.F.F. Rocco, and K. Iha, Eds., Hershey, PA: IGI Global, Chapter 1, pp. 1-24. DOI: 10.4018/978-1 -5225-2903-3.

  6. DeLuca, T., Shimada, T., Sinditskii, V.P., and Calabro, M., Eds., (2017b) Chemical Rocket Propulsion-A Comprehensive Survey of Energetic Materials, Echo Bay, ON, Canada: Springer Aerospace Technology, pp. 253-270.

  7. Gettwert, V., Franzin, A., Bohn, M.A., DeLuca, L.T., and Weiser, V., (2017) Ammonium Dinitramide/Glycidyl Azide Polymer (ADN/GAP) Composite Propellants with and without Metallic Fuels, Int. J. Energ. Mater. Chem. Propuls., 16(1), pp. 61-79.

  8. Kempa, P.-B. and Herrmann, M., (2005) The ICT-Database of Thermochemical Values and the ICT-Thermodynamic Code, Fraunhofer-Institut fur Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal, in 36th Intl. Annual Conf. of ICT and 32nd Intl. Pyrotechnics Seminar, June28-July 1, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 183-1-183-8.

  9. Kumar, P. and Joshi, P., (2017) Thermal Decomposition and Kinetics Studies of AN, KDN and Their Mixtures with and without Catalysts, Cent. Eur. J. Energ. Mater, 14(1), pp. 184-200. DOI: 10.22211/cejem/68476.

  10. Manelis, G.B., (2014) Thermal Decomposition and Combustion of Explosives and Propellants, 1st ed., Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

  11. Weiser, V., Ebeling, H., Weindel, M., Eckl, W., and Klahn, T., (2004) Non-Intrusive Burning Rate Measurement under Pressure by Evaluation of Video Data, in 35th Intl. Annual Conf. of ICT, June 29-July 2, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 158-1-158-6.

  12. Weiser, V. and Eisenreich, N., (2005) Fast Emission Spectroscopy for a Better Understanding of Pyrotechnic Combustion Behaviour, Propel. Explos., Pyrotech., 30(1), pp. 67-78.

  13. Weiser, V., Kelzenberg, S., and Eisenreich, N., (2001) Influence of the Metal Particle Size on the Ignition of Energetic Materials, Propel. Explos. Pyrotech., 26(6), pp. 284-289.

  14. Weiser, V., Kelzenberg, S., Knapp, S., and Roth, E., (2012) Methods to Investigate the Igniter/Propellant Interaction, in 43rdIntl. Annual Conf. oflCT, Karlsruhe, June 26-29, pp. 69-1-69-10.

  15. Weiser, V., Lity, A., Kelzenberg, S., Koleczko, A., Roth, E., Schaller, U., and Walschburger, E., (2014a) Burning Behaviour of B/KDN-Mixtures Compared with B/KNO3, in 45th Intl. Annual Conf. of the Fraunhofer ICT, June 24-27, Karlsruhe, Germany, pp. 111-1-111-6.

  16. Weiser, V., Roth, E., Kelzenberg, S., and Koleczko, A., (2014b) Pyrotechnic Ignition based on Thermite Mixtures and Their Interaction with Different Types of Propellants, in 10th Intl. Symp. on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion and Energetic Materials (10-ISICP), June 2-6, Poitiers, France, p. 51.

  17. Weiser, V., Roth, E., Raab, A., Eckl, W., and Kelzenberg, S., (2008) Theoretical Considerations and Small-Scale Experiments to Improve Ignition and Combustion Behaviour of CSP, CSP CCN3 Mid Term/Progress Meeting 2, Pfinztal, February 27.