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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Impact-faktor: 1.404 5-jähriger Impact-Faktor: 3.347 SJR: 0.706 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Druckformat: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2020033205
pages 439-479

Upside and Downside of Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockers for Treatment of Immune/Inflammatory Diseases

Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Krishan Kumar Thakur
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Varsha Rana
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Bidisha Bora
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Kishore Banik
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Elina Khatoon
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Bethsebie L. Sailo
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Bano Shabnam
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Sosmitha Girisa
Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039, India
Subhash C. Gupta
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
Bharat B. Aggarwal
Inflammation Research Center, San Diego, California


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the most potent proinflammatory cytokine discovered to date, was first isolated in 1984 from human macrophage cells. Initially, it was thought to be a protein that was cytotoxic to tumor cells. But later, it was regarded as an agent that promotes inflammation and other chronic diseases found in humans. Currently, we know that the TNF superfamily (TNFS) has 19 members that perform a wide variety of functions via > 40 TNF receptors. Of TNFS members, TNF-α has been studied extensively and was found to be implicated in numerous autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and diabetes. Thus, agents that can inhibit TNF-α have great potential for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved many TNF-α blockers, such as etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab. These agents can block TNF-α actions and be used to treat different diseases. However, the uses of TNF-α blockers are not without serious adverse effects. Therefore, natural TNF-α blockers are best for developing safe, efficacious, and affordable agents for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. The current review details the TNFS, functions of TNF-α in normal and disease conditions, roles of TNF-α blockers, and advantages and disadvantages.


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