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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
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ISSN Druckformat: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2017020166
pages 445-460

Targeting NKG2D and NKp30 Ligands Shedding to Improve NK Cell−Based Immunotherapy

Alessandra Zingoni
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Elisabetta Vulpis
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Ilaria Nardone
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Alessandra Soriani
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Cinzia Fionda
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Marco Cippitelli
Department of Molecular Medicine, Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Angela Santoni
Laboratory of Immunology and Immunopathology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Istituto Pasteur-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, "Sapienza" Universita di Roma, Rome, Italy

ABSTRAKT

Natural killer (NK) cells are critical immune effector cells capable of mediating antitumor responses. These cytotoxic lymphocytes recognize transformed cells through a mechanism mainly dependent on the engagement of several activating receptors. However, many tumors have developed strategies to evade immunosurveillance and detection by NK cells. A relevant immune escape mechanism is the down regulation of NK cell activating ligands on the surface of tumor cells by proteolytic shedding mediated by different members of metalloproteinase families. Here, we consider two important NK activating receptors, namely NKG2D and NKp30, the ligands (i.e., MICA/B, ULBPs, and B7-H6) of which can be released by cancer cells through proteolytic cleavage. Modulation of ligand shedding in response to cancer therapy is also examined, and we discuss how metalloproteinases implicated in the ligand cleavage could be targeted in novel therapeutic schemes to counteract tumor escape from stress-elicited immune responses.

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: NK cells, immunotherapy, NKG2D, NKp30, shedding

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