Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Impact-faktor: 1.352 5-jähriger Impact-Faktor: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Druckformat: 1040-8401
ISSN Online: 2162-6472

Volumen 38, 2018 Volumen 37, 2017 Volumen 36, 2016 Volumen 35, 2015 Volumen 34, 2014 Volumen 33, 2013 Volumen 32, 2012 Volumen 31, 2011 Volumen 30, 2010 Volumen 29, 2009 Volumen 28, 2008 Volumen 27, 2007 Volumen 26, 2006 Volumen 25, 2005 Volumen 24, 2004 Volumen 23, 2003 Volumen 22, 2002 Volumen 21, 2001 Volumen 20, 2000 Volumen 19, 1999 Volumen 18, 1998 Volumen 17, 1997 Volumen 16, 1996 Volumen 15, 1995 Volumen 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v20.i4.10
58 pages

Mechanisms of Induction of Tolerance to Organ Allografts

Bruce Hall
Department of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Health Services Building, Liverpool Hospital, P.O. Box 103, Liverpool, BC 1871, N.S.W., Australia


The long-term acceptance of organ allografts can be induced in numerous rodent and some preclinical outbred models. Induction methods can use donor alloantigen in various forms, including spontaneous acceptance of grafts such as livers, to deviate the immune response so a subsequent graft will be accepted. Establishment of lymphohemopoietic chimerism is not essential. Short-term immunosuppressive treatments that prevent acute rejection can also induce tolerance. These include nonspecific immunosuppressive drugs and immunotherapy that blocks cell surface molecular interactions or cytokine function. There is variation in the effect of these protocols on different strain combinations that may be due to innate differences in the cell sub-populations and cytokines activated in the hosts. Th1 cytokines, although important in the mediation of rejection, are also required for induction of tolerance. Th2 cytokines may facilitate tolerance induction but are not essential. The tolerant state takes weeks to fully mature after exposure to alloantigen. Tolerance is associated with a loss or change in dendritic cells and the development of suppressor cells, which in all cases include CD4+ T cells. In the near future precise understanding of the function of these two cell types may allow diagnosis and induction of tolerance in clinical transplantation.