Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis
SJR: 0.631 SNIP: 0.503 CiteScore™: 2.2

ISSN Druckformat: 0893-9675
ISSN Online: 2162-6448

Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevOncog.2019033037
pages 269-283

Treatment of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity: Assessing the Options

Nahid Ranjbar
Department Physical Therapy, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568
Ashley Kurien
Department Physical Therapy, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568
Cheryl A. Hall
Department Physical Therapy, New York Institute of Technology, Old Westbury, NY 11568

ABSTRAKT

Background: Obesity in the United States has been identified as one of the most prevalent health epidemics affecting both adults and children, and it has become the focus of a variety of primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare interventions.
Objectives: To summarize and assess the efficacy of current practices in the management and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.
Methods: An extensive review of the literature was performed. This review examined five areas of intervention most commonly used to manage and treat pediatric overweight and obesity: physical activity, nutritional and behavioral interventions, pharmaceutical management, and surgical procedures.
Results: Of 82 sources, 43 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. However, after evaluating study strength using the PEDro, 24 were included in this systematic review. The studies, which included RCTs and cohort studies of levels I and II evidence, respectively, were evaluated for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Programs that combined decreased sedentary behaviors and nutritional modifications had the most significant results in changes in body mass index (BMI) and weight gain or weight loss.
Conclusion: To ensure successful management and treatment of pediatric obesity, the most successful paradigm of intervention is through a multidisciplinary approach: physical activity, nutrition, and behavioral strategies. Behavioral interventions should support and reinforce physical activity and nutritional modifications. Because of the potential health risks involved to the child, pharmaceutical and surgical approaches are considered only when all other interventions have failed.

REFERENZEN

  1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Flegal KM. Obesity among adults in the United States-no statistically significant change since 2003-2004. NCHS Data Brief. 2007(1):1-8.

  2. Verhagen AP, de Vet HC, de Bie RA, Kessels AG, Boers M, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG. The Delphi list: a criteria list for quality assessment of randomized clinical trials for conducting systematic reviews developed by Delphi con-sensus. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(12):1235-41.

  3. Henderson M, Daneman D, Hux J, Hanley A. Exercise in-terventions in obese youth: are they effective? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2008;21(9):823-26.

  4. Reilly JJ, McDowell ZC. Physical activity interventions in the prevention and treatment of paediatric obesity: systematic review and critical appraisal. Proc Nutr Soc. 2003;62(3):611-19.

  5. Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Gordy CC, Dorn J. Decreasing sedentary behaviors in treating pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154(3):220-26.

  6. Montgomery C, Reilly JJ, Jackson DM, Kelly LA, Slater C, Paton JY, Grant S. Relation between physical activity and energy expenditure in a representative sample of young children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(3):591-96.

  7. Gutin B, Barbeau P, Owens S, Lemmon CR, Bauman M, Allison J, Kang HS, Litaker MS. Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(5):818-26.

  8. O'Brien SH, Holubkov R, Reis EC. Identification, evaluation, and management of obesity in an academic primary care center. Pediatrics. 2004;114(2):e154-59.

  9. Epstein LH, Smith JA, Vara LS, Rodefer JS. Behavioral economic analysis of activity choice in obese children. Health Psychol. 1991;10(5):311-16.

  10. Jarvisalo MJ, Harmoinen A, Hakanen M, Paakkunainen U, Viikari J, Hartiala J, Lehtimaki T, Simell O, Raitakari OT. Elevated serum C-reactive protein levels and early arterial changes in healthy children. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22(8):1323-28.

  11. McVean JJ, Carrel AL, Eickhoff JC, Allen DB. Fitness level and body composition are associated with inflammation in non-obese children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22(2):153-59.

  12. Davis RM. Healthy People 2010: objectives for the United States. Impressive, but unwieldy. BMJ. 2000;320(7238): 818-19.

  13. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris WA, Lowry R, McManus T, Chyen D, Lim C, Whittle L, Brener ND, Wechsler H. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2010;59(5):1-142.

  14. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris WA, Lowry R, McManus T, Chyen D, Lim C, Brener ND, Wechsler H. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(4):1-131.

  15. Kelder SH, Mitchell PD, McKenzie TL, Derby C, Strikmiller PK, Luepker RV, Stone EJ. Long-term implementation of the CATCH physical education program. Health Educ Behav. 2003;30(4):463-75.

  16. Carrel AL, Clark RR, Peterson SE, Nemeth BA, Sullivan J, Allen DB. Improvement of fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children in a school-based exercise program: a randomized, controlled study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(10):963-68.

  17. Harris KC, Kuramoto LK, Schulzer M, Retallack JE. Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2009;180(7):719-26.

  18. Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Ballard-Barbash R, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(8):763-78.

  19. Hossain P, Kawar B, El Nahas M. Obesity and diabetes in the developing world-a growing challenge. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(3):213-15.

  20. Campbell K, Hesketh K, Crawford D, Salmon J, Ball K, McCallum Z. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: cluster-randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:103.

  21. Austin SB, Kim J, Wiecha J, Troped PJ, Feldman HA, Peterson KE. School-based overweight preventive intervention lowers incidence of disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(9):865-69.

  22. Wen LM, Baur LA, Rissel C, Wardle K, Alperstein G, Simpson JM. Early intervention of multiple home visits to prevent childhood obesity in a disadvantaged population: a home-based randomised controlled trial (Healthy Beginnings Trial). BMC Public Health. 2007;7:76.

  23. Young LR, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(2):246-49.

  24. Ello-Martin JA, Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ. The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(1 Suppl):236s-41s.

  25. Orlet Fisher J, Rolls BJ, Birch LL. Children's bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(5):1164-70.

  26. Linardakis M, Sarri K, Pateraki MS, Sbokos M, Kafatos A. Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:279.

  27. Rodearmel SJ, Wyatt HR, Stroebele N, Smith SM, Ogden LG, Hill JO. Small changes in dietary sugar and physical activity as an approach to preventing excessive weight gain: the America on the Move family study. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):e869-79.

  28. Chappel CI. A review and biological risk assessment of sodium saccharin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1992;15(3): 253-70.

  29. James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, Kerr D. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2004;328(7450): 1237.

  30. Duncan KH, Bacon JA, Weinsier RL. The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37(5):763-67.

  31. Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Beecher MD, Roemmich JN. Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16(2):318-26.

  32. Golley RK, Magarey AM, Baur LA, Steinbeck KS, Daniels LA. Twelve-month effectiveness of a parentled, family-focused weight-management program for prepubertal children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2007;119(3):517-25.

  33. Golan M, Crow S. Targeting parents exclusively in the treatment of childhood obesity: long-term results. Obes Res. 2004;12(2):357-61.

  34. Foster GD, Sherman S, Borradaile KE, Grundy KM, Vander Veur SS, Nachmani J, Karpyn A, Kumanyika S, Shults J. A policy-based school intervention to prevent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2008;121(4):e794-802.

  35. Jansen W, Raat H, Zwanenburg EJ, Reuvers I, van Walsem R, Brug J. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6-12 years: study design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:257.

  36. Latzer Y, Edmunds L, Fenig S, Golan M, Gur E, Hochberg Z, Levin-Zamir D, Zubery E, Speiser PW, Stein D. Managing childhood overweight: behavior, family, pharmacology, and bariatric surgery interventions. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(3):411-23.

  37. Kamath CC, Vickers KS, Ehrlich A, McGovern L, Johnson J, Singhal V, Paulo R, Hettinger A, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Clinical review: behavioral interventions to prevent childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta- analyses of randomized trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4606-15.

  38. Jiang JX, Xia XL, Greiner T, Lian GL, Rosenqvist U. A two year family based behaviour treatment for obese children. Arch Dis Child. 2005;90(12):1235-38.

  39. Hughes AR, Stewart L, Chapple J, McColl JH, Donaldson MD, Kelnar CJ, Zabihollah M, Ahmed F, Reilly JJ. Randomized, controlled trial of a best-practice individualized behavioral program for treatment of childhood overweight: Scottish Childhood Overweight Treatment Trial (SCOTT). Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):e539-46.

  40. Savoye M, Shaw M, Dziura J, Tamborlane WV, Rose P, Guandalini C, Goldberg-Gell R, Burgert TS, Cali AM, Weiss R, Caprio S. Effects of a weight management program on body composition and metabolic parameters in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial. Jama. 2007;297(24):2697-704.

  41. Faith MS, Berman N, Heo M, Pietrobelli A, Gallagher D, Epstein LH, Eiden MT, Allison DB. Effects of contingent television on physical activity and television viewing in obese children. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):1043-48.

  42. Doyle AC, Goldschmidt A, Huang C, Winzelberg AJ, Taylor CB, Wilfley DE. Reduction of overweight and eating disorder symptoms via the Internet in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(2):172-79.

  43. Ezendam NP, Oenema A, van de Looij-Jansen PM, Brug J. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:324.

  44. Johnston CA, Tyler C, McFarlin BK, Poston WS, Haddock CK, Reeves R, Foreyt JP. Weight loss in overweight Mexican American children: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2007;120(6):e1450-57.

  45. Jones M, Luce KH, Osborne MI, Taylor K, Cunning D, Doyle AC, Wilfley DE, Taylor CB. Randomized, controlled trial of an internet-facilitated intervention for reducing binge eating and overweight in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):453-62.

  46. Laurson KR, Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ, Wickel EE, Gentile DA, Walsh DA. Combined influence of physical activity and screen time recommendations on childhood overweight. J Pediatr. 2008;153(2):209-14.

  47. Lofrano-Prado MC, Antunes HK, do Prado WL, de Piano A, Caranti DA, Tock L, Carnier J, Tufik S, de Mello MT, Damaso AR. Quality of life in Brazilian obese adolescents: effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009;7:61.

  48. McGovern L, Johnson JN, Paulo R, Hettinger A, Singhal V, Kamath C, Erwin PJ, Montori VM. Clinical review: treatment of pediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(12):4600-5.

  49. Nemet D, Barkan S, Epstein Y, Friedland O, Kowen G, Eliakim A. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e443-49.

  50. Oude Luttikhuis H, Baur L, Jansen H, Shrewsbury VA, O'Malley C, Stolk RP, Summerbell CD. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009(1):Cd001872.

  51. Tanas R, Marcolongo R, Pedretti S, Gilli G. A family-based education program for obesity: a three-year study. BMC Pediatr. 2007;7:33.

  52. Tsiros MD, Sinn N, Brennan L, Coates AM, Walkley JW, Petkov J, Howe PR, Buckley JD. Cognitive behavioral therapy improves diet and body composition in overweight and obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1134-40.

  53. van den Akker EL, Puiman PJ, Groen M, Timman R, Jongejan MT, Trijsburg W. A cognitive behavioral therapy program for overweight children. J Pediatr. 2007;151(3):280-83.

  54. Wilfley DE, Stein RI, Saelens BE, Mockus DS, Matt GE, Hayden-Wade HA, Welch RR, Schechtman KB, Thompson PA, Epstein LH. Efficacy of maintenance treatment approaches for childhood overweight: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;298(14):1661-73.

  55. Danielsson P, Janson A, Norgren S, Marcus C. Impact sibutramine therapy in children with hypothalamic obesity or obesity with aggravating syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(11):4101-6.

  56. Wirth A, Krause J. Long-term weight loss with sibutramine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;286(11): 1331-39.

  57. Berkowitz RI, Fujioka K, Daniels SR, Hoppin AG, Owen S, Perry AC, Sothern MS, Renz CL, Pirner MA, Walch JK, Jasinsky O, Hewkin AC, Blakesley VA. Effects of sibutramine treatment in obese adolescents: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145(2):81-90.

  58. Reisler G, Tauber T, Afriat R, Bortnik O, Goldman M. Sibutramine as an adjuvant therapy in adolescents suffering from morbid obesity. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8(1):30-2.

  59. Chanoine JP, Hampl S, Jensen C, Boldrin M, Hauptman J. Effect of orlistat on weight and body composition in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(23):2873-83.

  60. Van Mil EG, Westerterp KR, Kester AD, Delemarre-van de Waal HA, Gerver WJ, Saris WH. The effect of sibutramine on energy expenditure and body composition in obese adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(4):1409-14.

  61. Berkowitz RI, Wadden TA, Tershakovec AM, Cronquist JL. Behavior therapy and sibutramine for the treatment of adolescent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003;289(14):1805-12.

  62. Drew BS, Dixon AF, Dixon JB. Obesity management: update on orlistat. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6): 817-21.

  63. Henness S, Perry CM. Orlistat: a review of its use in the management of obesity. Drugs. 2006;66(12):1625-56.

  64. Srinivasan S, Ambler GR, Baur LA, Garnett SP, Tepsa M, Yap F, Ward GM, Cowell CT. Randomized, controlled trial of metformin for obesity and insulin resistance in children and adolescents: improvement in body composition and fasting insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(6):2074-80.

  65. Morrison JA, Cottingham EM, Barton BA. Metformin for weight loss in pediatric patients taking psychotropic drugs. Am J Psych. 2002;159(4):655-57.

  66. Viner RM, Hsia Y, Neubert A, Wong IC. Rise in anti-obesity drug prescribing for children and adolescents in the UK: a population-based study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;68(6):844-51.

  67. Wong WW, Myres D, Fraley JK, Smith EO, Klish WJ, Hollier DR. Prevalence of overweight in a multiethnic pediatric population. J Children's Health. 2003;1(4):477-87.

  68. Encinosa WE, Bernard DM, Du D, Steiner CA. Recent improvements in bariatric surgery outcomes. Med Care. 2009;47(5):531-35.

  69. Tice JA, Karliner L, Walsh J, Petersen AJ, Feldman MD. Gastric banding or bypass? A systematic review comparing the two most popular bariatric procedures. Am J Med. 2008;121(10):885-93.

  70. Livingston EH. Obesity and its surgical management. Am J Surg. 2002;184(2):103-13.

  71. Stanford A, Glascock JM, Eid GM, Kane T, Ford HR, Ikramuddin S, Schauer P. Laparoscopic Rouxen-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese adolescents. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38(3):430-33.

  72. Strauss RS, Bradley LJ, Brolin RE. Gastric bypass surgery in adolescents with morbid obesity. J Pediatr. 2001;138(4):499-504.

  73. Inge TH, Krebs NF, Garcia VF, Skelton JA, Guice KS, Strauss RS, Albanese CT, Brandt ML, Hammer LD, Harmon CM, Kane TD, Klish WJ, Oldham KT, Rudolph CD, Helmrath MA, Donovan E, Daniels SR. Bariatric surgery for severely overweight adolescents: concerns and recommendations. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):217-23.

  74. Holterman AX, Browne A, Dillard BE, 3rd, Tussing L, Gorodner V, Stahl C, Browne N, Labott S, Herdegen J, Guzman G, Rink A, Nwaffo I, Galvani C, Horgan S, Holterman M. Short-term outcome in the first 10 morbidly obese adolescent patients in the FDA-approved trial for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007;45(4):465-73.

  75. Treadwell JR, Sun F, Schoelles K. Systematic review and meta-analysis of bariatric surgery for pediatric obesity. Ann Surg. 2008;248(5):763-76.

  76. Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Changes in comorbidities and improvements in quality of life after LAP-BAND placement. Am J Surg. 2002;184(6b):51s-54s.

  77. Xanthakos SA. Bariatric surgery for extreme adolescent obesity: indications, outcomes, and physiologic effects on the gut-brain axis. Pathophysiology. 2008;15(2):135-46.

  78. Xanthakos SA, Inge TH. Nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9(4): 489-96.

  79. Till H, Bluher S, Hirsch W, Kiess W. Efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a stand-alone technique for children with morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2008;18(8):1047-49.

  80. Lenders CM, Wright JA, Apovian CM, Hess DT, Shukla RR, Adams WG, Lee K. Weight loss surgery eligibility according to various BMI criteria among adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(1):150-55.

  81. Pratt JS, Lenders CM, Dionne EA, Hoppin AG, Hsu GL, Inge TH, Lawlor DF, Marino MF, Meyers AF, Rosenblum JL, Sanchez VM. Best practice updates for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(5):901-10.


Articles with similar content:

Sleep and Wake Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.21, 2009, issue 3-4
Angela Colantonio, Judith Gargaro, Catherine Wiseman-Hakes
Cancer Cachexia: From Molecular Mechanisms to Patient's Care
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis, Vol.17, 2012, issue 3
Filippo Rossi Fanelli, Martina Esposito, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Simone Lucia
Conservative Treatments, Surgical Treatments, and the KineSpring® Knee Implant System for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.23, 2013, issue 2-03
Sheila Sprague, Mohit Bhandari, Olufemi R. Ayeni, Chuan Silvia Li, Victoria Truong
Effectiveness of Therapeutic Interventions for Women with Urinary Incontinence: A Systematic Review
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.32, 2020, issue 1
Thanyaluck Sriboonreung, Chailert Phongnarisorn, Shamima Islam Nipa, Aatit Paungmali
Relaxation Techniques: A Critical Review
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.12, 2000, issue 1
Kate Kerr