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Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis
SJR: 0.631 SNIP: 0.503 CiteScore™: 2

ISSN Druckformat: 0893-9675
ISSN Online: 2162-6448

Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevOncog.2017024535
pages 303-311

The Ideological Frame of the Genetic Basis of Cancer: The Important Role of miRNAs

Vassilis Zoumpourlis
Biomedical Applications Unit, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece
Eleni Skourti
National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece
Maria Goulielmaki
Biomedical Applications Unit, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece
Spiros Vlahopoulos
Biomedical Applications Unit, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece; Horemio Research Institute, First Department of Pediatrics, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Ioannis Christodoulou
Biomedical Applications Unit, Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens, Greece

ABSTRAKT

The elucidation of the genetic basis of cancer is the result of the research conducted since the beginning of the previous century, which peaked during the decades of 1960s and 1970s. It has been achieved through two different but convergent routes: the first includes the study of oncogenic viruses in rodents and birds and the second includes the use of chemical carcinogens in cells or in animal model systems (mice). Within this framework, the identification of genes that present mutations, alterations in expression levels, and epigenetic modifications has been facilitated through the development of animal carcinogenesis models. One of these models is the well-characterized mouse multistage skin cancer system discussed in this review. In addition, recent evidence shows the great significance that cancer stem cells seem to have in the emergence and progression of carcinogenesis. Finally, herein we discuss the critical role that miRNAs have emerged to play in cancer progression. miRNAs emerged as molecules with an impact on most cancer-related cellular processes, involving cell proliferation, cell death (apoptosis), angiogenesis, migration/motility, and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. Their discovery has given rise to studies with a focus on miRNAs as key players in crucial oncogenesis-related processes and thus as potential targets in cancer therapeutics.

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: cancer, miRNAs, genetic basis

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