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Heat Transfer Research
Impact-faktor: 0.404 5-jähriger Impact-Faktor: 0.8 SJR: 0.264 SNIP: 0.504 CiteScore™: 0.88

ISSN Druckformat: 1064-2285
ISSN Online: 2162-6561

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Heat Transfer Research

DOI: 10.1615/HeatTransRes.2013006880
pages 309-338


Mohammad Hemmat Esfe
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran
Sina Niazi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Seyed Sadegh Mirtalebi Esforjani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Mohammad Akbari
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


The present study focuses on the problem of mixed convection fluid flow and heat transfer of nanofluid in a ventilated square cavity. The cavity contains two heated blocks subjected to external Al2O3−water (with particle diameter of 47 nm)nanofluid, while temperature and nanoparticle concentration are dependent on thermal conductivity and effective viscosity insidea square cavity. The governing equations have been solved utilizing the finite volume method, while the SIMPLER algorithm is used to couple velocity and pressure fields. The natural convection effect is obtained by heating from the blocks on the bottom wall and cooling from the inlet flow. Using the developed code, the effect of Richardson number, the aspect ratio of hot blocks, solid volume fraction, and cavity inclination angles on the thermal behavior and fluid flow inside the cavity are studied. The study has been executed for the Richardson number in the range of 0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 10, solid volume fraction 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.06, aspect ratio 0.5 ≤ AR ≤ 1, and cavity inclination angles between 0° and 90°.The obtained results are presented in the form of streamline and isotherm counter and Nusselt diagrams. It was observed from the results that for both obstacles and in all ranges of the parameters in this study, adding nanoparticles to the base fluid or increasing the volume fraction of the nanoparticles causes the Nusselt number increases. Also, the rate of heat transfer increases when the Reynolds number increases.