Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
Heat Transfer Research
Impact-faktor: 0.404 5-jähriger Impact-Faktor: 0.8 SJR: 0.264 SNIP: 0.504 CiteScore™: 0.88

ISSN Druckformat: 1064-2285
ISSN Online: 2162-6561

Volumen 51, 2020 Volumen 50, 2019 Volumen 49, 2018 Volumen 48, 2017 Volumen 47, 2016 Volumen 46, 2015 Volumen 45, 2014 Volumen 44, 2013 Volumen 43, 2012 Volumen 42, 2011 Volumen 41, 2010 Volumen 40, 2009 Volumen 39, 2008 Volumen 38, 2007 Volumen 37, 2006 Volumen 36, 2005 Volumen 35, 2004 Volumen 34, 2003 Volumen 33, 2002 Volumen 32, 2001 Volumen 31, 2000 Volumen 30, 1999 Volumen 29, 1998 Volumen 28, 1997

Heat Transfer Research

DOI: 10.1615/HeatTransRes.2019031074
pages 25-39


Yi Nan
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Yaomin Cai
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Zhixiong Guo
Rutgers University


Numerical studies of fluid flow and heat transfer in a water-filled prismatic glass louver have been carried out to investigate the efficiency of solar thermal energy harvest via the proposed louver that could be deployed in buildings to improve natural lighting to save electrical bills as well as to harvest and store solar energy transformed into thermal energy. One surface of the prismatic louver is adjusted to face the direct solar irradiation. Both direct and diffuse irradiations are incorporated in different air mass models. The distribution of absorbed solar radiation in the louver is precalculated via the Monte Carlo method and input as a heating source. The finite element method based on COMSOL is adopted to simulate the three-dimensional steady-state fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer in the triangular water channel. Temperature-dependence of water property is considered. The prismatic louver is surrounded by ambient air. Emphasis is placed on investigating the effects of flow rate and solar irradiation conditions on water temperature rise and energy harvest. It is found that the outlet water temperature is a strong function of the water flow rate. Most of the absorbed solar energy in the glass can be converted into stored thermal energy in the water through convective heat transfer. The water pumping power consumed is negligible as compared to the energy harvested. When the louver is adjusted to face the direct solar irradiation and the water flow velocity is 0.1 m/s, the overall utilization efficiency of the louver reaches 89.2, 90.3, 89.1, and 87.9% for AM1.0, AM1.5, AM2.0, and AM3.0, respectively.


  1. Bianco, V., Manca, O., and Nardini, S., Numerical Investigation on Nanofluids Turbulent Convection Heat Transfer inside a Circular Tube, Int. J. Therm. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 341-349, 2011.

  2. Cai, Y. and Guo, Z., Spectral Investigation of Solar Energy Absorption and Light Transmittance in a Water-Filled Prismatic Glass Louver, Solar Energy, vol. 179, pp. 164-173, 2019.

  3. Cai, Y. and Guo, Z., Spectral Monte Carlo Simulation of Collimated Solar Irradiation Transfer in a Water-Filled Prismatic Louver, Appl. Opt., vol. 57, pp. 3021-3030, 2018.

  4. Chai, J.C., Lee, H.S., and Patankar, S.V., Ray Effect and False Scattering in the Discrete Ordinates Method, Numer. Heat Transf. B, vol. 24, pp. 373-389, 1993.

  5. Cheng, Z.M., Yu, R.T., Wang, F.Q., Liang, H.X., Xie, M., Li, O., and Tan, J.Y., Coupled Heat Transfer Analyses of Molten Salt with Variation of Thermophysical Properties, Heat Transf. Res., vol. 50, pp. 33-56, 2019.

  6. Choi, S.U.S. and Eastman, J.A., Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with Nanoparticles, ASME FED, vol. 231, pp. 99-103, 1995.

  7. Churchill, S.W. and Chu, H.H.S., Correlating Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection from a Vertical Plate, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 18, pp. 1323-1329, 1975.

  8. Elsheikh, A.H., Sharshir, S.W., Mostafa, M.E., and Ali, M.K.A., Applications of Nanofluids in Solar Energy: A Review of Recent Advances, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 82, pp. 3483-3502, 2018.

  9. Howell, J.R., The Monte Carlo Method in Radiative Heat Transfer, J. Heat Transf., vol. 120, pp. 547-560, 1998.

  10. Hunter, B. and Guo, Z.X., Improved Treatment of Anisotropic Scattering in Radiation Transfer Analysis Using the Finite Volume Method, Heat Transf. Eng., vol. 37, pp. 341-350, 2016.

  11. Hunter, B. and Guo, Z.X., Numerical Smearing, Ray Effect, and Angular False Scattering in Radiation Transfer Computation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 81, pp. 63-74, 2015.

  12. Iwabuchi, H., Efficient Monte Carlo Methods for Radiative Transfer Modeling, J. Atmos. Sci., vol. 63, pp. 2324-2339, 2006.

  13. Kasaeian, A., Eshghi, A.T., and Sameti, M., A Review on the Applications of Nanofluids in Solar Energy Systems, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 43, pp. 584-598, 2015.

  14. Keblinski, P., Eastman, J.A., and Cahill, D.G., Nanofluids for Thermal Transport, Materials Today, vol. 8, pp. 36-44, 2005.

  15. Kumar, S., Kothiyal, A.D., Bisht, M.S., and Kumar, A., Effect of Nanofluid Flow and Protrusion Ribs on Performance in Square Channels: An Experimental Investigation, J. Enhanced Heat Transf., vol. 26, pp. 75-100, 2019.

  16. Lougou, B.G., Shuai, Y., Pan, R.M., Chaffa, G., and Tan, H.P., Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Analysis of Porous Medium Solar Thermochemical Reactor with Quartz Glass Cover, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 127, pp. 61-74, 2018.

  17. Mohammed, H.A., Gunnasegaran, P., and Shuaib, N.H., The Impact of Various Nanofluid Types on Triangular Microchannels Heat Sink, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 38, pp. 767-773, 2011.

  18. Murthy, J.Y. and Mathur, S.R., Finite Volume Method for Radiative Heat Transfer Using Unstructured Meshes, J. Thermophys. Heat Transf., vol. 12, pp. 313-321, 1998.

  19. Nandakrishnan, S.L., Deepu, M., and Shine, S.R., Numerical Investigation of Heat-Transfer Enhancement in a Dimpled Diverging Microchannel with Al2O3-Water Nanofluid, J. Enhanced Heat Transf., vol. 25, pp. 347-365, 2018.

  20. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, About the Building Technologies Office, US Department of Energy, accessed from https://www. energy. gov/eere/buildings/about-building-technologies-office, 2019.

  21. Rashidi, S., Kashefi, M.H., and Hormozi, F., Potential Applications of Inserts in Solar Thermal Energy Systems-A Review to Identify the Gaps and Frontier Challenges, Solar Energy, vol. 171, pp. 929-952, 2018.

  22. Rauf, S. and Saha, S.K., Thermal Performance of Multitube Latent Heat Storage Using a Metal Matrix for Solar Applications: Numerical Study, Heat Transf. Res, vol. 50, pp. 545-564, 2019.

  23. Saidur, R., Leong, K.Y., and Mohammad, H.A., A Review on Applications and Challenges of Nanofluids, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 15, pp. 1646-1668, 2011.

  24. Shafieian, A., Osman, J.J., Khiadani, M., and Nosrati, A., Enhancing Heat Pipe Solar Water Heating Systems Performance Using a Novel Variable Mass Flow Rate Technique and Different Solar Working Fluids, Solar Energy, vol. 186, pp. 191-203, 2019.

  25. Sun, Y.S., Ma, J., Li, B.W., and Guo, Z.X., Prediction of Nonlinear Heat Transfer in a Convective-Radiative Fin with Temperature-Dependent Properties by the Collocation Spectral Method, Numer. Heat Transf. B, vol. 69, pp. 68-83, 2016.

  26. Tahir, S. and Mital, M., Numerical Investigation of Laminar Nanofluid Developing Flow and Heat Transfer in a Circular Channel, Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 8-14, 2012.

  27. Vlachokostas, A. and Madamopoulos, N., Daylight and Thermal Harvesting Performance Evaluation of a Liquid Filled Prismatic Facade Using the Radiance Five-Phase Method and EnergyPlus, Build. Environ., vol. 126, pp. 396-409, 2017.

  28. Vlachokostas, A. and Madamopoulos, N., Liquid Filled Prismatic Louver Facade for Enhanced Daylighting in High-Rise Commercial Buildings, Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. A805-A818, 2015.

  29. Wang, F.Q., Shuai, Y., Tan, H.P., and Yu, C.L., Thermal Performance Analysis of Porous Media Receiver with Concentrated Solar Irradiation, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 62, pp. 247-254, 2013.

  30. Wang, J.F., Xie, H.Q., Guo, Z.X., Cai, L., and Zhang, K., Using Organic Phase-Change Materials for Enhanced Energy Storage in Water Heaters: An Experimental Study, J. Enhanced Heat Transf., vol. 26, pp. 167-178, 2019.

  31. Wen, D.S. and Ding, Y.L., Experimental Investigation into Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids at the Entrance Region under Laminar Flow Conditions, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 47, pp. 5181-5188, 2004.

  32. Yang, J.Y., Li, J.P., and Feng, R., Heat Loss Analysis and Optimization of Household Solar Heating System, Heat Transf. Res., vol. 50, pp. 659-670, 2019.

  33. Zhang, T.T. and Yang, H.X., Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Natural Convection in Vertical Air Channels of Double-Skin Solar Facades, Appl. Energy, vol. 242, pp. 107-120, 2019.