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Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing
SJR: 0.161 SNIP: 0.312 CiteScore™: 0.1

ISSN Druckformat: 1065-3090
ISSN Online: 1940-4336

Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing

DOI: 10.1615/JFlowVisImageProc.2017020408
pages 171-192


Andrew J. Lingenfelter
Air Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB OH, 45433, USA
D. Liu
Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, 207 West D Ave., Eglin AFB FL, 32532, USA
M. F. Reeder
Air Force Institute of Technology, WPAFB OH, 45433, USA
E. T. Brickson
3704th Test Group, 2700 D St., WPAFB OH, 45433, USA


Hydrodynamic ram occurs when a projectile with sufficient kinetic energy impacts a fluid-filled tank and generates large pressure fluctuations within the tank, potentially contributing to the tank's failure. A common product of a hydrodynamic ram event is the transient spray, or liquid spurt, generated through the projectile's penetration orifice. Previous work described the resulting transient spray in distinct, sequential phases. Additional research noted cavities, for missiles entering water, as having distinct phases or features. Hence, experiments were constructed using two synchronized high-speed cameras to capture the interior cavity features through the tank's polycarbonate wall and the corresponding exterior transient spray phases. Research was conducted to relate the interior and exterior observations with 0.95 cm steel spheres ranging from 1,800, 1,495, to 1,200 m/s. Synchronized high-speed image pairs were collected within 0.2 μs of each other and proved crucial for confidently relating the interior cavity features to the exterior transient spray. Analyzing the synchronized image pairs yielded correlation of the pre-spurt, main spurt, and low-frequency pulsation transient spray phases to the respective cavity contraction, cavity separation, and cavity collapse features. Further delineation of the cavity phase into separate transitional phases provided insight for further hydrodynamic ram research to determine the physical relationship to the transient spray.