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Atomization and Sprays
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ISSN Druckformat: 1044-5110
ISSN Online: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2013005837
pages 807-842


Michele Bardi
Raul Payri
CMT–Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Edificio 6D, Valencia, 46022, Spain
Louis Marie C. Malbec
IFP Énergies nouvelles (IFPEN), 1-4 av. Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison, France
Gilles Bruneaux
IFP Énergies nouvelles (IFPEN), 1-4 av. Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison, France
Lyle M. Pickett
Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 696, Livermore, CA 94551
Julien Manin
Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969, MS9053, Livermore, CA 94551, USA
Tim Bazyn
Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, Illinois 61629, USA
Caroline L. Genzale
G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0001 USA


Development and mixing of Diesel sprays are long known to be key factors for combustion and pollutant emissions but the related measurements in a real engine is not an easy task. This fact led researchers to simulate engine conditions in special facilities that allow the use of high-fidelity diagnostics. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) has focused on overcoming the variability from one institution to the next by testing nominally identical Diesel injectors in four different facilities for the first time, including constant-pressure flow and constant-volume preburn chambers. Liquid- and vapor-phase penetration, ignition delay, and lift-off length measurements are compared with similar experimental setups and processing methodologies. The consistency of the data obtained indicates a good level of repeatability between the test rigs employed, and no deviation of the results can be associated with the facility type. Comparison of liquid length measurements via Mie scattering shows that this diagnostic is sensitive to the orientation of the light source. For more repeatable results between facilities, diffused back-illumination imaging is recommended. A novel image processing method has been employed to detect spray boundaries obtained in high-speed schlieren imaging: the method showed high accuracy and robustness to the different schlieren setups employed by the institutions. High-speed broadband chemiluminescence, as schlieren imaging, shows the onset of cool flame, and moreover when the combustion is stabilized, it provides an important reference to define ignition delay and lift-off length. The methodology put in place by the ECN participants in this work allows an important step forward in two directions. The first is to understand the repeatability related to experimental data in high-pressure, high-temperature environments. The second is to advance the understanding of the different diagnostics applied, thereby providing more quantitative measurements that yield to a more suitable datasets for computational fluid-dynamic model evaluation.