Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
Interfacial Phenomena and Heat Transfer
ESCI SJR: 0.258 SNIP: 0.574 CiteScore™: 0.8

ISSN Druckformat: 2169-2785
ISSN Online: 2167-857X

Interfacial Phenomena and Heat Transfer

DOI: 10.1615/InterfacPhenomHeatTransfer.2019030171
pages 391-407

EVAPORATION FROM SIMULATED SOIL PORES: EFFECTS OF WETTABILITY, LIQUID ISLANDS, AND BREAKUP

Partha Pratim Chakraborty
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA
Ryan Huber
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA
Xi Chen
Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124, USA
Melanie M. Derby
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA

ABSTRAKT

Two-thirds of worldwide water withdrawals are for agriculture; this represents a key challenge in the food–energy–water nexus. In the U.S. Central High Plains, the Ogallala aquifer—the primary water source for agriculture—is depleting. Reducing water evaporation from soil provides an opportunity to decrease irrigation, thus conserving water resources. In this study, evaporation phenomena of 4 μL sessile water droplets were analyzed from a simulated soil pore created with 2.38 mm hydrophilic glass and hydrophobic Teflon beads. The experiments were conducted at 22°C and 60% relative humidity. Two geometries were studied: symmetric (i.e., center-to-center spacing between the beads of 3.1 mm) and asymmetric (i.e., center-to-center spacings of 2.7 mm and 2.8 mm). Evaporation phenomena were recorded using a high-speed camera and evaporation times were recorded. Evaporation was faster from the hydrophilic pore (e.g., 34 min) compared to the hydrophobic pore (e.g., 42 min) in the symmetric configuration, due in part to greater air–water contact areas. Spacing between the beads affected evaporation, as evaporation rates to completely evaporate the droplet were slower for hydrophilic (e.g., 44 min) and hydrophobic (e.g., 56 min) pores in the asymmetric configuration. The formation of liquid island, projected area, liquid island contact angles, volume, and rupture strength of droplet were analyzed for all four combinations. The droplet retained its initial projected area, wetted length, and volume for a certain time during evaporation from Teflon pores (e.g., 5–10 min), while these parameters decreased simultaneously during evaporation from glass pores.

REFERENZEN

  1. Alexandratos, N. and Bruinsma, J., World Agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision, FAO, Rome: ESA Working paper, vol. 12, no. 3, 2012.

  2. Bachmann, J., Horton, R., and Van Der Ploeg, R.R., Isothermal and Nonisothermal Evaporation from Four Sandy Soils of Different Water Repellency, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1599–1607, 2001.

  3. Bachmann, J., Woche, S.K., Goebel, M.O., Kirkham, M.B., and Horton, R., Extended Methodology for Determining Wetting Properties of Porous Media, Water Resources Res., vol. 39, no. 12, pp. SBH11-1–SBH11-14, 2003.

  4. Birdi, K.S., Vu, D.T., and Winter, A., A Study of the Evaporation Rates of Small Water Drops Placed on a Solid Surface, J. Phys. Chem., vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 3702–3703, 1989.

  5. Birdi, K.S. and Vu, D.T., Wettability and the Evaporation Rates of Fluids from Solid Surfaces, J. Adhesion Sci. Technol., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 485–493, 1993.

  6. Borodulin, V. and Nizovtsev, M., Effect of the Size of Droplets on Evaporation, Interf. Phenom. Heat Transf., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 251–261, 2017.

  7. Butler, J.J., Stotler, R.L., Whittemore, D.O., and Reboulet, E.C., Interpretation ofWater Level Changes in the High Plains Aquifer in Western Kansas, Groundwater, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 180–190, 2013.

  8. Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Heitman, J.L., and Ren, T., Wettability and Hysteresis Effects on Water Sorption in Relatively Dry Soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1947–1951, 2009.

  9. Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Heitman, J.L., and Ren, T., An Experimental Study of Coupled Heat and Water Transfer in Wettable and Artificially Hydrophobized Soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 125–132, 2014.

  10. Deegan, R.D., Bakajin, O., Dupont, T.F., Huber, G., Nagel, S.R., and Witten, T.A., Contact Line Deposits in an Evaporating Drop, Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top, vol. 62, no. 1B, pp. 756–765, 2000.

  11. De Bisschop, F.R.E. and Rigole, W.J.L., A Physical Model for Liquid Capillary Bridges between Adsorptive Solid Spheres: The Nodoid of Plateau, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 1982.

  12. De Vries, D.A., Simultaneous Transfer of Heat and Moisture in Porous Media, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 909–916, 1958.

  13. Erbil, H.Y., Evaporation of Pure Liquid Sessile and Spherical Suspended Drops: A Review, Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci., vol. 170, nos. 1-2, pp. 67–86, 2012.

  14. Fairbrother, R. and Simons, S., The Rapture Energy of Liquid Bridges between Sphere. The Effect of Contact Angle and Separation Distance on Liquid Bridge Geometries, World Cong. Part. Technol. 3, vol. 3, p. 59, 1998.

  15. Farmer, T.P. and Bird, J.C., Asymmetric Capillary Bridges between Contacting Spheres, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., vol. 454, pp. 192– 199, 2015.

  16. Gladky, A. and Schwarze, R., Comparison of Different Capillary Bridge Models for Application in the Discrete Element Method, Granular Matter, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 911–920, 2014.

  17. Gleeson, T., Alley, W.M., Allen, D.M., Sophocleous, M.A., Zhou, Y., Taniguchi, M., and VanderSteen, J., Towards Sustainable Groundwater Use: Setting Long-Term Goals, Backcasting, and Managing Adaptively, Groundwater, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2012.

  18. Haque, M.R., Qu, C., Kinzel, E.C., and Betz, A.R., Droplet Growth Dynamics during Atmospheric Condensation on Nanopillar Surfaces, Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 270–295, 2018.

  19. Hornbeck, R. and Keskin, P., The Historically Evolving Impact of the Ogallala Aquifer: Agricultural Adaptation to Groundwater and Drought, Am. Econ. J.: Appl. Econ., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 190–219, 2014.

  20. Hu, H. and Larson, R.G., Evaporation of a Sessile Droplet on a Substrate, J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1334–1344, 2002.

  21. Jury, W.A. and Letey Jr, J., Water Vapor Movement in Soil: Reconciliation of Theory and Experiment, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 823–827, 1979.

  22. Keatts, M.I., Daniels, J.L., Langley, W.G., Pando, M.A., and Ogunro, V.O., Apparent Contact Angle and Water Entry Head Measurements for Organo-Silane Modified Sand and Coal Fly Ash, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 04018030-1– 04018030-9, 2018.

  23. Lambert, P., Chau, A., Delchambre, A., and Regnier, S., Comparison between Two Capillary Forces Models, Langmuir, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 3157–3163, 2008.

  24. Lian, G., Thornton, C., and Adams, M.J., A Theoretical Study of the Liquid Bridge Forces between Two Rigid Spherical Bodies, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 138–147, 1993.

  25. Nguyen, T.A.H., Nguyen, A.V., Hampton, M.A., Xu, Z.P., Huang, L., and Rudolph, V., Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Droplet Evaporation on Solid Surfaces, Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 522–529, 2012.

  26. Oki, T. and Kanae, S., Global Hydrological Cycles andWorldWater Resources, Science, vol. 313, no. 5790, pp. 1068–1072, 2006.

  27. Orejon, D., Sefiane, K., and Shanahan, M.E.R., Stick-Slip of Evaporating Droplets: Substrate Hydrophobicity and Nanoparticle Concentration, Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 12834–12843, 2011.

  28. Philip, J.R. and De Vries, D.A., Moisture Movement in Porous Materials under Temperature Gradients, Eos, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 222–232, 1957.

  29. Pietsch, W. and Rumpf, H., Haftkraft, Kapillardruck, Flussigkeitsvolumen und Grenzwinkel einer Flussigkeitsbrucke Zwischen Zwei Kugeln, Chem. Ing. Tech., vol. 39, no. 15, pp. 885–893, 1967.

  30. Pitois, O., Moucheront, P., and Chateau, X., Rupture Energy of a Pendular Liquid Bridge, Eur. Phys. J. B, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 79–86, 2001.

  31. Rabinovich, Y.I., Esayanur, M.S., and Moudgil, B.M., Capillary Forces between Two Spheres with a Fixed Volume Liquid Bridge: Theory and Experiment, Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 10992–10997, 2005.

  32. Saenz, P.J., Wray, A.W., Che, Z., Matar, O.K., Valluri, P., Kim, J., and Sefiane, K., Dynamics and Universal Scaling Law in Geometrically-Controlled Sessile Drop Evaporation, Nat. Commun., vol. 8, no. 14783, pp. 1–9, 2017.

  33. Shang, J., Flury, M., Harsh, J.B., and Zollars, R.L., Comparison of Different Methods to Measure Contact Angles of Soil Colloids, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., vol. 328, no. 2, pp. 299–307, 2008.

  34. Shokri, N., Lehmann, P., and Or, D., Effects of Hydrophobic Layers on Evaporation from Porous Media, Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 35, no. 19, pp. L19407-1–4, 2008.

  35. Simons, S.J.R., Seville, J.P.K., and Adams, M.J., An Analysis of the Rupture Energy of Pendular Liquid Bridges, Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 2331–2339, 1994.

  36. Steward, D.R., Bruss, P.J., Yang, X., Staggenborg, S.A., Welch, S.M., and Apley, M.D., Tapping Unsustainable Groundwater Stores for Agricultural Production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, Projections to 2110, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 110, no. 37, pp. E3477–E3486, 2013.

  37. Steward, D.R. and Allen, A.J., Peak Groundwater Depletion in the High Plains Aquifer, Projections from 1930 to 2110, Agric. Water Manage., vol. 170, pp. 36–48, 2016.

  38. Suzuki, S. and Ueno, K., Apparent Contact Angle Calculated from a Water Repellent Model with Pinning Effect, Langmuir: ACS J. Surf. Colloids, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 138–143, 2017.

  39. United Nations, World Population Projected to Reach 9.8 Billion in 2050, and 11.2 Billion in 2100, accessed January 20, 2019, from https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/world-population-prospects-2017.html, 2017.

  40. Weigert, T. and Ripperger, S., Calculation of the Liquid Bridge Volume and Bulk Saturation from the Half-Filling Angle, Part. Part. Syst. Charact., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 238–242, 1999.

  41. Willett, C.D., Adams, M.J., Johnson, S.A., and Seville, J.P.K., Capillary Bridges between Two Spherical Bodies, Langmuir, vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 9396–9405, 2000.

  42. Wise, L.A., Drying Shame: With the Ogallala Aquifer in Peril, the Days of Irrigation for Western Kansas Seem Numbered, The Kansas City Star, from https://www.kansascity.com/news/state/kansas/article28640722.html, 2015.

  43. Zhu, H.P., Zhou, Z.Y., Yang, R.Y., and Yu, A.B., Discrete Particle Simulation of Particulate Systems: Theoretical Developments, Chem. Eng. Sci., vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 3378–3396, 2007.


Articles with similar content:

EVAPORATION FROM POROUS MEDIA: SINGLE HYDROPHOBIC AND HYDROPHILIC PORES
3rd Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC), Vol.9, 2018, issue
Ryan Huber, Xi Chen, Melanie M. Derby
Effect of Gravity on Flow Boiling in Narrow Ducts and Enhancement of CHF Values
International Heat Transfer Conference 12, Vol.41, 2002, issue
Kazunori Matsunaga, Yasuhisa Shinmoto, Haruhiko Ohta
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SESSILE DROPLET BEHAVIOR DURING EVAPORATION: COMPARISON OF METHANOL AND WATER
International Heat Transfer Conference 16, Vol.4, 2018, issue
R. Lankri, M. Ait Saada, Lounes Tadrist, Salah Chikh
EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE WETTABILITY AND INCLINATION ANGLE ON THE CONDENSER PERFORMANCE OF LOOP THERMOSYPHONS
International Heat Transfer Conference 16, Vol.13, 2018, issue
Shwin-Chung Wong, Ji-Yu Du
Electrical Properties of Surface-Barrier Diodes Based on the CdTe Crystals with Modified Surface
Telecommunications and Radio Engineering, Vol.66, 2007, issue 19
V. V. Mel'nyk, Victor P. Makhniy, V. V. Gorley, N. V. Skrypnyk