Abo Bibliothek: Guest
Digitales Portal Digitale Bibliothek eBooks Zeitschriften Referenzen und Berichte Forschungssammlungen
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
SJR: 0.121 SNIP: 0.228 CiteScore™: 0.5

ISSN Druckformat: 0896-2960
ISSN Online: 2162-6553

Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.2019029730
pages 23-33

Health-Related Physical Fitness of People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Shruti Nair
Mahatma Gandhi Mission School of Physiotherapy, MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Sector No.1, Plot No. 1 & 2, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai–410209, India Navi Mumbai, India
Bela Agarwal
Department of Physiotherapy, Mahatma Gandhi Mission School of Physiotherapy, MGM Institute of Health Sciences, Sector No.1, Plot No. 1 & 2, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai–410209, India
Jyoti Chatla
Physiotherapist, Physiosafe Training & Consulting Pvt. Ltd, Melbourne, Australia
Rajani Mullerpatan
Prof-Director, MGM Institute's University Department of Physiotherapy, MGM Institute of Health Sciences

ABSTRAKT

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly emerging as a potential epidemic, with more than 422 million adults living with diabetes. Over the last few decades, prevalence of DM has increased largely in low- to middle-income countries due to a rise in associated risk factors like obesity, overweight, physical inactivity, and poor health-related physical fitness. Reduced myocardial perfusion, decreased microcirculation, skeletal muscle atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy caused by DM exert negative influence on all domains of physical fitness, such as muscle flexibility, strength, endurance, balance, and cardiopulmonary endurance. Existing literature reveals a focus on unidimensional aspects of fitness, such as reduction in cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength; however, influence on other equally important fitness components remains unexplored. Lack of comprehensive review motivated the present study, which explored the level of physical fitness among adults with DM in comparison to healthy age-gender matched controls. A significant reduction in cardiorespiratory endurance (43%, p < 0 .001), muscle flexibility (13%, p < 0.01), muscle strength (11%, p < 0.05), muscle endurance (8%, p < 0.001), and balance (30%, p < 0.001) was observed in people with DM compared to healthy adults. Findings suggest a strong need to increase awareness about the benefits of physical activity, regular fitness assessment, and training. Comprehensive rehabilitation programs emphasizing all dimensions of fitness need to be advocated for people with type 2 diabetes by integrating regular physical fitness evaluation and training programs designed to improve cardiovascular endurance and balance in routine clinical practice.

REFERENZEN

  1. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: Global report on diabetes. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2016. [cited 11 Nov 2018]. Available from: https://www.who.int/diabetes/global-report/en/.

  2. Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J. , The current state of diabetes mellitus in India. Australas Med J. 2014;7(1):45–8.

  3. Joshi SR, Parikh RM. , India—diabetes capital of the world: now heading towards hypertension. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:323–4.

  4. Kumar A, Goel MK, Jain RB, Khanna P, Chaudhary V. , India towards diabetes control: Key issues. Australas Med J. 2013;6(10):524–31.

  5. Olokoba AB, Obateru OA, Olokoba LB. , Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of current trends. Oman Med J. 2012;27(4):269–73.

  6. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. , Global prevalence of diabetes-estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(3):1047–53.

  7. Cade WT. , Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting. Phys Ther. 2008;88(11):1322–35.

  8. World Health Organization: Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health—diet and physical activity: a public health priority. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2012. [cited 11 Nov 2018]. Available from: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/en.

  9. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, Horton ES, Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2065–79.

  10. Dagogo-Jack S. , Preventing diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in the primary care setting. J Natl Med Assoc. 2002;94(7):549–60.

  11. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, Chasan-Taber L, Albright AL, Braun B., Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):147–67.

  12. Hamasaki H. , Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: a review. World J Diabetes. 2016;7(12):243–51.

  13. Praet SF, van Loon LJ. , Exercise therapy in type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2009;46(4):263–78.

  14. Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. , Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 1985;100(2):126–31.

  15. McKinney J, Lithwick DJ, Morrison BN, Nazzari H, Isserow S, Heilborn B, Krahn AD. , The health benefits of physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. BCMJ. 2016;58(3):131–7.

  16. Silva RC, Diniz Mde F, Alvim S, Vidigal PG, Fedeli LM, Barreto SM. , Physical activity and lipid profile in the ELSA—Brasil study. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016;107(1):10–9.

  17. Balkau B, Mhamdi L, Oppert JM, Nolan J, Golay A, Porcellati F, Laakso M, Ferrannini E. , Physical activity and insulin sensitivity: the RISC study. Diabetes. 2008;57(10):2613–8.

  18. Ortega FB, Sanchez-Lopez M, Solera-Martinez M, Fernandez-Sanchez A, Sjostrom M, Martinez-Vizcaino V., Self-reported and measured cardiorespiratory fitness similarly predict cardiovascular disease risk in young adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013;23(6):749–57.

  19. Weening-Dijksterhuis E, de Greef MH, Krijnen W, van der Schans CP., Self-reported physical fitness in frail older persons: reliability and validity of the Self-Assessment of Physical Fitness (SAPF). Percept Mot Skills. 2012;115(3):797–810.

  20. Jensen KG, Rosthoj S, Linneberg A, Aadahl M., The association between self-rated fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. Int J Sports Med. 2018;39(06):419–25.

  21. Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, España-Romero V, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Martínez-Gómez D, Manios Y, Béghin L, Molnar D, Widhalm K, Moreno LA, Sjöström M, Castillo MJ., The International Fitness Scale (IFIS): usefulness of self-reported fitness in youth. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(3):701–1.

  22. Cress ME, Buchner DM, Questad KA, Esselman PC, deLateur BJ, Schwartz RS. , Continuous-scale physical functional performance in healthy older adults: a validation study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(12):1243–50.

  23. Cetinus E, Buyukbese MA, Uzel M, Ekerbicer H, Karaoguz A. , Hand grip strength in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;70(3):278–86.

  24. Gundmi S, Maiya AG, Bhat AK,Ravishankar N,Hande MH, Rajgopal KV. , Hand dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review with meta-analysis. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2018;61(2):99–104.

  25. Suguna, Hand grip strength in type II diabetes. Univ J Pre Para Clin Sci. 2018;4(3).

  26. Awotidebe TO, Adedoyin RA, Oke KI, Ativie RN, Opiyo R, Ikujeyisi EO, Ikem RT, Afolabi MA. , Relationship between functional capacity and health-related quality of life of patients with type—2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017;11(1):1–5.

  27. Fang ZY, Prins JB, Sharman J, Marwick TH. , Determinants of exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1643–8.

  28. Adeniyi AF, Uloko AE and Sani-Suleiman I. , Exercise capacity in type 2 diabetes: a preliminary investigation. Afr J Biomed Res. 2009;12(3):175–9.

  29. Akanksha, Dixit V, Dhanwal D. , Handgrip strength as a measure of sarcopenia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Adv Res Med. 2014;1(1):10–4.

  30. Gill PS, Sandhu R, Dimple, Arora A. , Hand grip strength in type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics. Pak J Physiol. 2015;11(3):32–4.

  31. Latiri I, Elbey R, Hcini K, Zaoui A, Charfeddine B, Maarouf. , Six-minute walk test in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients living in Northwest Africa. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:227–45.

  32. Ozdirenç M, Biberoğlu S, Ozcan A. , Evaluation of physical fitness in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;60(3):171–6.

  33. Lohmann H, Siersma V,Olivarius NF. , Fitness consultations in routine care of patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice: an 18-month non-randomised intervention study. BMC Fam Prac. 2010;11:83.

  34. Hansen D, Peeters S, Zwaenepoel B, Verleyen D, Wittebrood C, Timmerman N, Schotte M., Exercise assessment and prescription in patients with type 2 diabetes in the private and home care setting: clinical recommendations from AXXON (Belgian Physical Therapy Association). Phys Ther. 2013;93(5):597–610.

  35. Panteleimon B, Panagiotis I, Fotis B. , Evaluation of hamstring flexibility by using two different measuring instruments. Sport Logia. 2010;6:28–32.

  36. Lemmink KA, Kemper HC, de Greef MH, Rispens P, Stevens M. , The validity of the sit-and-reach test and the modified sit-and-reach test in middle-aged to older men and women. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003;74(3)331–6.

  37. Mayorga-Vega D, Merino-Marban R, Viciana J. , Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility: a meta-analysis. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(1):1–14.

  38. Alfonso-Rosa RM, Del Pozo-Cruz B, Del Pozo-Cruz J,Sañudo B,Rogers ME. , Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for fitness assessment in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Rehabil Nurs. 2014;39(5):260–8.

  39. Peolsson A, Hedlund R and Birgitta OE. , Intra- and inter-tester reliability and reference values for hand strength. J Rehabil Med. 2001;33:36–41.

  40. Singh SJ, Morgan MD, Scott S, Walters D, Hardman AE. , Development of a shuttle walking test of disability in patients with chronic airways obstruction. Thorax. 1992;47:1019–24.

  41. Parreira VF, Janaudis-Ferreira T, Evans RA, Mathur S, Goldstein RS, Brooks D. , Measurement properties of the incremental shuttle walk test. a systematic review. Chest. 2014;145(6):1357–69.

  42. Franchignoni F, Tesio L, Martino MT, Ricupero C. , Reliability of four simple, quantitative tests of balance and mobility in healthy elderly females. Aging. 1998;10(1):26–31.

  43. Bohannon RW, Peolsson A, Massy-Westropp N, Desrosiers J, Bear-Lehman J. , Reference values for adult grip strength measured with a Jamar dynamometer: a descriptive meta-analysis. Physiotherapy. 2006;92:11–5.

  44. Jones CJ, Rikli RE, Beam WC. , A 30-s chair-stand test to measure lower body strength in community-residing older adults. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1999;70(2):113–9.

  45. Van Vrancken C, Bopp CM, Reis JP, DuBose KD, Kirtland KA, Ainsworth BE., The prevalence of leisure time physical activity among diabetics in South Carolina. South Med J. 2004;97(2):141–4.

  46. Bays HE, Chapman RH, Grandy S. , The relationship of body mass index to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia: comparison of data from two national surveys. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61(5):737–74.

  47. Ganz ML,Wintfeld N, Li Q, Alas V, Langer J, Hammer M. , The association of body mass index with the risk of type 2 diabetes: a case-control study nested in an electronic health records system in the United States. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014;6:50.

  48. Helmersson, J, B. Vessby, A. Larsson and S. Basu. , Association of type 2 diabetes with cyclooxygenase- mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in an elderly population. Circulation. 2004;109:1729–34.

  49. Ezema CI, Iwelu EV, Abaraogu UO, Olawale OA. , Handgrip strength in individuals with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus: A preliminary report. Afr J Physiother Rehabil Sci. 2012;4(1-2):67–71.

  50. Helander, I, Westerblad H and Katz A. , Effects of glucose on contractile function, [Ca2 ]i, and glycogen in isolated mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002; 282(6):1306–12.

  51. Oberbach A, Bossenz Y, Lehmann S, Niebauer J, Adams V, Paschke R, Schön MR, Blüher M, Punkt K. , Altered fiber distribution and fiber-specific glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006.

  52. Wyatt LH, Ferrance RJ. , The musculoskeletal effects of diabetes mellitus. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2006;50(1):43–50.

  53. Peterson MD, Duchowny K, Meng Q, Wang Y, Chen X, Zhao Y. , Low normalized grip strength is a biomarker for cardiometabolic disease and physical disabilities among U.S. and Chinese adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72(11):1525–31.

  54. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, Chasan-Taber L, Albright AL, Braun B., Exercise and type 2 diabetes the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):147–67.

  55. Arkkila PE, Kantola IM, Viikari JS. , Limited joint mobility in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients: correlation to control of diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and other diabetic complications. J Diabetes Complications. 1997;11(4):208–17.

  56. Park SW, Goodpaster BH, Strotmeyer ES, Rekeneire ND, Harris TB, Schwartz AV, Tylavsky FA, Newman AB. , Decreased muscle strength and quality in older adults with type 2 diabetes: the health, aging, and body composition study. Diabetes. 2006;55:1813–8.

  57. Laaksonen DE, Lakka HM, Salonen JT, Niskanen LK, Rauramaa R, Lakaa TA. , Low levels of leisure-time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness predict development of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1612–8.

  58. Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F. , Poor physical fitness, and impaired early insulin response but late hyperinsulinemia, as predictors of NIDDM in middle-aged Swedish men. Diabetologia. 1996;39(5):573–79.

  59. Caron J, duManoir GR, Labrecque L, Chouinard A, Ferland A, Poirier P, Legault S, Brassard P. , Impact of type 2 diabetes on cardiorespiratory function and exercise performance. Physiol Rep. 2017;5(4):e13145.

  60. Richerson SJ, Robinson CJ, Shum J. , A comparative study of reaction times between type II diabetics and non-diabetics. Biomed Eng Online. 2005;4:12.

  61. Goldberg A, Russell JW, Alexander NB. , Standing balance and trunk position sense in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)-related peripheral neuropathy. J Neurol Sci. 2008;270:165–71.

  62. Bonnet C, Carello C, Turvey MT. , Diabetes and postural stability: review and hypotheses. J Mot Behav. 2009;41:172–90.

  63. Allet L, Armand S, de Bie RA, Golay A, Monnin D, Aminian K, Staal JB, de Bruin ED. , The gait and balance of patients with diabetes can be improved: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2010;53(3):458–66.

  64. Kwon OY, Minor SD, Maluf KS, Mueller MJ. , Comparison of muscle activity during walking in subjects with and without diabetic neuropathy. Gait Posture. 2003;18:105–13.

  65. Mueller MJ, Minor SD, Sahrmann SA, Schaaf JA, Strube MJ. , Differences in the gait characteristics of patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy compared with age-matched controls. Phys Ther.1994;74:299–08.

  66. Vaz MM, Costa GC, Reis JG, Junior WM, Albuquerque de Paula FJ, Abreu DC., Postural control and functional strength in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94(12):2465–70.


Articles with similar content:

Cardiorespiratory Endurance, Flexibility and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.32, 2020, issue 2
Dhruv Mehta, Bela Agarwal, Rajani Mullerpatan, Tanochni Mohanty
Effects of Isometric Handgrip Exercise Training on Systemic Arterial Stiffness, Cardiovagal Baroreflex Sensitivity, and Cognition in Treated Adults with Hypertension: A Pilot Study
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.30, 2018, issue 3
Kylie S. Dempster, Cheri L. McGowan, Terrance J. Wade, Deborah D. O'Leary
Relationships among Strength, Body Composition, and Measures of Activity in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.23, 2011, issue 1-4
Anita Bagley, Joseph Krzak, Mark Romness, Barbara Johnson, Mark Abel, Sahar Hassani, George Gorton, Donna Oeffinger, Ann Flanagan, Chester Tylkowski
The Role of Resistance Exercise in Chronic Disease: Prescription Guidelines and Application in Clinical Practice
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.18, 2006, issue 4
Jack Cannon, Stephen P. Bird
Functional Outcome Following Lower Extremity Amputation: A Review of Contextual Factors Influencing Function in Low- to Middle-Income Group Countries
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.31, 2019, issue 2
Swagatika Mishra, Bela Agarwal, Megha Sonkhia, Abhishek Gupta, Rajani Mullerpatan, Blessy Thomas