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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.241 5-Year IF: 1.349 SJR: 0.519 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v21.i1.20
12 pages

In Vitro Protective Effects of Terminalia arjuna Bark Extracts Against the 4-Nitroquinoline-N-Oxide Genotoxicity

Rossana Pasquini
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Giuseppina Scassellati-Sforzolini
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Milena Villarini
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Italy
Massimo Moretti
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Italy
Massimiliano Marcarelli
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Cristina Fatigoni
Department of Hygiene, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Satwinderjeet Kaur
Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India
Subodh Kumar
Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
Iqbal S. Grover
Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India

ABSTRACT

We determined the antimutagenic potential of chloroform, acetone, methanol, methanol+HCl, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate extracts of Terminalia arjuna bark against the model mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) using the Salmonella/microsome, comet, and micronucleus (MN) tests. Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain and human peripheral white blood cells were coincubated with various concentrations (from 5 to 500 mg) of the six extracts and 4-NQO (from 0.05 to 2 mg). We found that the 4-NQO mutagenicity was inhibited by more than 70% in the Salmonella/microsome test at the highest nontoxic extract dose of ethyl acetate (50 mg/plate), chloroform (100 (mg/plate), acetone, (100 (mg/plate), and methanol (500 (mg/plate). A less marked antimutagenicity activity (inhibition of about 40—45%) was observed for the acidic methanol and diethyl ether extracts. The comet assay showed that acetone extract (100 mg/mL) was more effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4-NQO (ca. 90%), whereas the chloroform, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether extracts were cytotoxic. In the MN test, the decrease in 4-NQO clastogenicity was observed by testing the mutagen especially with chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts (inhibition about 40-45%). The acetone and methanol extracts showed a less marked activity (33% and 37%, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that T. arjuna bark contains some nonpolar as well as polar compounds with antimutagenic activity against 4-NQO. Several explanations can be suggested, but further investigations are necessary to definitely identify the active compounds.


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