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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
IF: 1.241 5-Year IF: 1.349 SJR: 0.356 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Print: 0731-8898
ISSN Online: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.v31.i2.40
pages 121-129

Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, Exhibits Anticancer Activity by Attenuating Lipid Peroxidation Via Enhancing Antioxidant Defense System During NMU-Induced Breast Carcinoma

Jayaraman Jagadeesan
Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. A. L. Mudhaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Tamilnadu, India
Natarajan Nandakumar
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan
Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. A. L. Mudhaliar Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Tamilnadu, India
Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy Balasubramanian
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

Diosgenin, a natural steroidal saponin, has been reported to be found predominantly in fenugreek and has diverse biological properties. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) is a mammary gland−specific carcinogen that closely mimics human breast cancer in many aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticarcinogenic property of diosgenin with reference to lipid peroxidation, status of antioxidants, and activities of marker enzymes against NMU-induced experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Breast cancer was induced in female Sprague Dawley rats by an intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of NMU (a concentration of 50 mg/kg body weight) diluted in 0.9% saline, and the rats were treated with oral diosgenin, 20 mg/kg body weight, for 45 days. The results were interesting, and the diosgenin treatment remarkably downregulated the peroxidation reaction and marker enzymes and extraordinarily enhanced the indigenous antioxidant defense system. The factor for this remarkable restoration might be due to the effect of the intervention strategy on the downregulation of the peroxidation reaction through the strong antioxidant nature, which ultimately reflected in the downregulation of marker enzyme activities. The histopathological study of breast and liver tissues inevitably confirms the biochemical changes. Thus, it can be concluded that diosgenin exhibits anticarcinogenic activity via reducing peroxidation reaction and marker enzymes through enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant defense system.


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