Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
IF: 2.9 5-Year IF: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Print: 0743-4863
ISSN Online: 2162-660X

Volumes:
Volume 36, 2019 Volume 35, 2018 Volume 34, 2017 Volume 33, 2016 Volume 32, 2015 Volume 31, 2014 Volume 30, 2013 Volume 29, 2012 Volume 28, 2011 Volume 27, 2010 Volume 26, 2009 Volume 25, 2008 Volume 24, 2007 Volume 23, 2006 Volume 22, 2005 Volume 21, 2004 Volume 20, 2003 Volume 19, 2002 Volume 18, 2001 Volume 17, 2000 Volume 16, 1999 Volume 15, 1998 Volume 14, 1997 Volume 13, 1996 Volume 12, 1995

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v16.i1.20
62 pages

Enhancement of Ocular Drug Penetration

Hitoshi Sasaki
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan
Kenzo Yamamura
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8131, Japan
Takahiro Mukai
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8131, Japan
Koyo Nishida
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8131, Japan
Junzo Nakamura
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8131, Japan
Mikiro Nakashima
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan
Masataka Ichikawa
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan

ABSTRACT

Although new drugs have recently been developed within the field of ophthalmology, the eye's various defense mechanisms make it difficult to achieve an effective concentration of these drugs within the eye. Drugs administered systemically have poor access to the inside of the eye because of the blood-aqueous and blood-retinal barriers. And although topical instillation of drags is very popular in ophthalmology, topically applied drugs are rapidly eliminated from the precorneal area. In addition, the cornea, considered a major pathway for ocular penetration of topically applied drugs, is an effective barrier to drug penetration, since the corneal epithelium has annular tight junctions (zonula occludens), which completely surround and effectively seal the superficial epithelial cells. Various drug-delivery systems have been developed to increase the topical bioavailability of ophthalmic drags by enhancement of the ocular drag penetration. The first approach is to modify the physicochemical property of drags by chemical and pharmaceutical means. An optimum promoiety can be covalently bound to a drag molecule to obtain a prodrug that can chemically or enzymatically be converted to the active parent drag, either within the cornea or after the corneal penetration. Along these same lines, the transient formation of a lipophilic ion pair by ionic bonding is also useful for improving ocular drug penetration. The second approach is to modify the integrity of the corneal epithelium transiently by coadministration of an amphiphilic substance or by chelating agents that act as drug-penetration enhancers. The third approach modifies the integrity of the corneal epithelium transiendy by physical techniques including iontophoresis and phonophoresis. This paper reviews the absorption behavior and ocular membranes penetration of topically applied drags, and the various approaches for enhancement of ocular drug penetration in the eye.


Articles with similar content:

Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Potential of Surface Engineered Dendrimers
Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Vol.24, 2007, issue 3
Narendra Kumar Jain, Umesh Gupta, Jitendra Satija
A New Horizon in Modifications of Chitosan: Syntheses and Applications
Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Vol.30, 2013, issue 2
Ashish Jain, Satish Shilpi, Ankit Jain, Pooja Hurkat, Arvind Gulbake, Sanjay Kumar Jain
The Wonders of Silk Fibroin Biomaterials in the Treatment of Breast Cancer
Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression, Vol.28, 2018, issue 2
Terin Adali, Pinar Tulay, Nanyak Galam
Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Physiologic and Mechanistic Aspects
Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Vol.14, 1997, issue 4
Jianwei Yu, Yie W. Chien
Penetration Enhancement of Transdermal Delivery—Current Permutations and Limitations
Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, Vol.21, 2004, issue 2
Chad G. Azzi, Jin Zhang, Carryn H. Purdon, Howard I. Maibach, Eric W. Smith