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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2014010676
pages 243-258

From the Gait Laboratory to the Rehabilitation Clinic: Translation of Motion Analysis and Modeling Data to Interventions That Impact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loads in Gait and Drop Landing

Thomas Kernozek
University of Wisconsin−La Crosse, Department of Health Professions, Physical Therapy Program
Michael Torry
Illinois State University, School of Kinesiology and Recreation
Kevin Shelburne
University of Denver, Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering
Christopher J. Durall
University of Wisconsin−La Crosse, Department of Health Professions, Physical Therapy Program
John Willson
East Carolina University, Department of Physical Therapy


In female athletes the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during impact-related activities such as landing is higher compared to males. Both how and why this occurs has been at the forefront of orthopedic sports medicine research over the past 20 years. Many individuals with an ACL-deficient knee compensate for joint instability in an effort to remain physically active. Yet others do not compensate and are faced with a reduction in their activities and/or meniscus tears and eventually osteoarthritis. In this article we attempt to link 2 distinct but related scientific disciplines (in vivo motion analysis assessment and computational modeling) to show how these techniques have emerged as powerful tools in our understanding of knee function. Normal knee function and the biomechanics of the ACL-deficient (ACLd) and ACL-reconstructed (ACLr) knee are summarized. Basic experiments concerning the mechanism of noncontact ACL injury as well as performance adaptations in ACLd and ACLr knees are reviewed, and the biomechanics of the normal, ACLd, and ACLr knees under more strenuous activities, such as landing from a jump, are provided.

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