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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.243 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Print: 0278-940X
ISSN Online: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2018027377
pages 399-412

Human Umbilical Cord–Derived Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application in Treating Diabetes

Bhawna Chandravanshi
School of Regenerative Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Bangalore, India
Ramesh R. Bhonde
School of Regenerative Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Bangalore, India; Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth Homeopathic Medical College and Research Centre, Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune, India

ABSTRACT

Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising and effective approaches for treating diabetes, due to stem cell nonimmunogenic and nonimmunosupressive properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord have been widely used in cell-based therapies for clinical applications. Among their various properties, immunomodulatory and proregenerative capacities broaden their scope for treating diabetes. Owing to various problems that are involved in treating diabetes, our review focuses on modulating umbilical cord–derived MSCs (UCMSCs) without any genetic manipulation. Umbilical cord tissue contains a rich source of MSCs with intact stemness. UCMSCs have profound effects on the remodeling process, maintaining similar morphology to various organs and escalating vascularization. Because of their neonatal origin, MSCs have enormous immune properties that lead to greater therapeutic benefits, including enhanced insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic (T2D) animal models and treatment of complications such as diabetic ulcers and compromised wound healing. MSCs ameliorate hyperglycemia by reducing inflammation due to their anti-inflammatory nature. Furthermore, their differentiation potential enables use in T1D treatment, wherein MSCs alone or insulin-producing cells that are derived from these MSCs, when transplanted in streptozotocin, induce animals to experience reversal of hyperglycemia. In this review, we discuss methods of UCMSC isolation, characterization, differentiation potential, and various applications in diabetes treatment.


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