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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.841 5-Year IF: 1.927 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2013007147
pages 195-214

Vitamin D and MicroRNAs in Bone

Thomas S. Lisse
Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 50 Blossom St., Thier 11, Boston, MA 02114
John S. Adams
Molecular Biology Institute, Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095
Martin Hewison
Molecular Biology Institute, Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that orchestrate complex posttranscriptional regulatory networks essential to the regulation of gene expression. Through complementarity with messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences, miRNAs act primarily to silence gene expression through either degradation or inhibited translation of target transcripts. In this way, miRNAs can act to fine-tune the transcriptional regulation of gene expression, but they may also play distinct roles in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of specific cell types. miRNA regulatory networks may be particularly important for signaling molecules such as vitamin D that exert pleiotropic effects on tissues throughout the body. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) functions as a steroid hormone that, when bound to its nuclear vitamin D receptor, is able to regulate target gene expression. However, recent studies have also implicated 1,25(OH)2D in epigenetic regulation of genes most notably as a modulator of miRNA function. The current review details our understanding of vitamin D and miRNAs with specific emphasis on the implications of this interaction for biological responses to vitamin D in one of its classical target tissues, i.e., bone.


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