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International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology
SJR: 0.106

ISSN Print: 2155-014X
ISSN Online: 2155-0158

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 9, 2018

International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology

DOI: 10.1615/IntJPhysPathophys.v1.i4.90
pages 389-400

Neutrophil Apoptosis and Hypoxia

Larissa Dyugovskaya
Lloyd Rigler Sleep Apnea Research Laboratory, Unit of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
Andrey Polyakov
Lloyd Rigler Sleep Apnea Research Laboratory, Unit of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are the most abundant population of leukocytes, which constitute the defense against pathogens. Released by neutrophils the proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species help in eliminating infections, but also cause extensive tissue damage. Neutrophil apoptosis plays an essential role in cell homeostasis and resolution of inflammation. It is mediated by a complex network of intracellular apoptotic/survival signaling pathways and can be modulated by a variety of extracellular stimuli such as hypoxia. Here, we review recent studies on the mechanisms of neutrophil death and survival accentuating on neutrophil apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. Neutrophils possess components of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic routes. However, in neutrophils this mechanism has special features. The involvement of death receptors, caspases, mitochondria, and Bcl-2 proteins are discussed. Both the transcription factor NF-κB and p38MAPK regulate the neutrophil apoptotic program. Despite that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can directly promote and/or adjust apoptosis, there is no consensus about the role of ROS on neutrophil lifespan. Thus both the types of ROS involved and the site of their generation may be important for neutrophil apoptosis. Finally, hypoxia can activate several signaling pathways. The possible differences between the effects of sustained and intermittent hypoxia are also addressed.


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