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International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology
SJR: 0.116

ISSN Print: 2155-014X
ISSN Online: 2155-0158

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 9, 2018

International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology

DOI: 10.1615/IntJPhysPathophys.v5.i2.80
pages 171-182

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Immune Properties

Mykola I. Lisianyi
Romodanov Institute of Neurosurgery, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are available in various body tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and skin. They can multiply not only at in vivo conditions, but also in vitro. MSCs have great regenerative potential, and they are able to proliferate into different types of tissues. Moreover, MSCs exhibit pronounced immunosuppressive properties and can inhibit the functioning of various immune cells, especially T-lymphocytes, killer and dendritic cells. These properties have being used in clinical applications to inhibit autoimmune responses and bone marrow rejection reactions. It has been shown that MSC immunosuppression is achieved through the synthesis of humoral factors such as cytokines, indolamino-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), nitric oxide, human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G), interleukines. In case of using MSCs to treat myocardial infarction in rats, these cells are transformed into myocytes, they change their antigenic profile, losing the ability to inhibit immune responses, which leads to rejection. These facts are important to elucidate the mechanism of their action and use in clinical practice for both immunosuppression and stem cell therapy.


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