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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.423 5-Year IF: 1.525 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v15.i3.30
pages 251-266

Antioxidant and Immunomodulating Activities of Exo-and Endopolysaccharide Fractions from Submerged Mycelia Cultures of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms

Sang-Chul Jeong
School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith New South Wales, Australia; Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Korea
Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi
School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith New South Wales, Australia
J. Margaret Hughes
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Cheang Khoo
School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith New South Wales, Australia
Trevor Bailey
School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Penrith New South Wales, Australia
Karthik Marripudi
Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia
Jong Pil Park
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Korea
Jin Hee Kim
Institute of Medical Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea
Chi-Hyun Song
Department of Biotechnology, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Korea

ABSTRACT

A number of mushrooms are known to possess pharmacological activities. In this study, the phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts of exo- and endopolysaccharide fractions obtained from submerged mycelia cultures of 7 edible or medicinal mushroom species, as well as their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties, were evaluated. The exo- and endopolysaccharide yields were 0.576−1.950 and 0.438−0.933 g/L, respectively. The sugar and protein contents of these fractions were analyzed and contained predominantly sugars (52.3−87.6%). The exo- and endopolysaccharide fractions contained appreciable amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. The highest flavonoid contents were found in Cryptosporus volvatus (349.6 mg/g), followed by Cordyceps militaris (312.6 mg/g). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by 4 assays: biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating ability for ferrous ions and ferric reducing antioxidant power. The mycelia polysaccharide fractions had more ferric reducing antioxidant power than other antioxidant activities. Both exo- and endo polysaccharides of C. volvatus inhibited production of the T lymphocyte Th1 cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and macrophage enzyme activity. Although those from C. militaris had similar inhibitory effects on cytokine production, the exopolysaccharides stimulated macrophage enzyme activity. The other exopolysaccharides (Pleurotus citrinopileatus, P. australis, and P. pulmonarius) inhibited IFN-γ and IL-5 production, but they had varying effects on IL-2 and IL-4 production. Only 3 exopolysaccharides (P. pulmonarius, Tremella mesenterica, and Cordyceps sinensis) also stimulated macrophage enzyme activity to the same extent as lipopolysaccharides. All of them reduced IL-5 production, but those from T. mesenterica also inhibited IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 production. Thus the polysaccharide fractions from the mushrooms studied have antioxidant activities and general immunomodulating effects in vitro.


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