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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.423 5-Year IF: 1.525 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v16.i4.10
pages 305-318

Hepato- and Nephroprotective Activities of a Nigerian Local King Tuber Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (Higher Basidiomycetes), in Chemically Induced Organ Toxicities in Rats

Chukwuemeka Sylvester Nworu
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
Stella A. Ihim
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
Loveth E. Ugwu
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
Kolawole A. Laiyemo
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
Peter A. Akah
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal failure, and liver diseases are increasing worldwide and constitute a huge burden on health care costs, with attendant high morbidity and debility. Despite advances in modern medicine, there are still no licensed drugs that satisfactorily restore lost kidney or hepatic functions. In this study the chemoprotective effects of the hot aqueous extract of a local edible oyster mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (APTR), was evaluated in experimental liver and kidney toxicities. The effect of APTR on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- and paracetamol (PCM)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was investigated by determining serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Short-term oral treatment with APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the increased concentrations of AST, ALT, and ALP induced in both PCM and CCl4 models of liver toxicity. APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) decreased the mean serum AST concentrations by as much as 73.00% and 99.37%, respectively, in PCM-treated rats. Nephroprotection was assessed by determining the serum concentrations of creatinine and urea, as well as antioxidant enzymes, in kidney tissue homogenates after a repeated high dose of gentamicin. APTR (100 and 250 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the escalated serum concentrations of creatinine and urea by as much as 48.36% and 41.53%, respectively, compared to control. Similarly, levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in kidney tissue were increased in a dose-related manner in groups that received oral APTR supplementation. The results of this study suggest that the consumption of our local edible mushroom, P. tuberregium, could, in addition to its high nutritive value, protect the liver and kidneys from oxidative damage caused by drugs and toxicants such as CCl4 and high doses of gentamicin and PCM.


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