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Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
SJR: 0.121 SNIP: 0.228 CiteScore™: 0.5

ISSN Print: 0896-2960
ISSN Online: 2162-6553

Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.2016016224
pages 135-144

Pain Control during Office-Based Procedures in Unsedated Patients: A Cross-Specialty Review of the Literature

Elliot Yoo
Loma Linda Pain Management, 11406 Loma Linda Drive, Loma Linda, CA 92354
Brianna Crawley
Loma Linda Department of Otolaryngology, 11234 Anderson Drive, Loma Linda, CA 92354
Daniel Kwon
Loma Linda Department of Otolaryngology, 11234 Anderson Drive, Loma Linda, CA 92354
Justin Hata
Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Care, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Division of Pain Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, California 92697, USA; Loma Linda Pain Management, 11406 Loma Linda Drive, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA

ABSTRACT

Before the use of general anesthesia, medical procedures were performed by necessity in an office setting. As the safety and availability of general anesthetics evolved, many of these procedures were relocated to the operating room to improve patient comfort and outcome. During the past decade, with the aid of technology and the desire for convenience, many interventions have migrated back into the office and are being performed without the use of sedation or general anesthesia. Pain and anxiety control during these procedures are paramount to patient compliance, accurate diagnosis, and successful treatment. However, methods currently used for pain mitigation and anxiety relief during awake, office-based procedures often lack appropriate evidence and standardization. Here, we review the recent literature on the way in which different specialties achieve analgesia during procedures in this new setting.


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