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Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
SJR: 0.121 SNIP: 0.228 CiteScore™: 0.17

ISSN Print: 0896-2960
ISSN Online: 2162-6553

Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.v11.i1.10
34 pages

A Comprehensive Review of Running Injuries

Michael Fredericson
Department of Functional Restoration, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, R-105D, Stanford, CA 94305-5105
A. Gabrielle Bergman
Musculoskeleta! Radiology, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5105


Many otherwise healthy runners are subjected to some type of overload injury during the course of a year's training. Clearly, prevention or early intervention is the preferable course of action. However, it is difficult to predict injury, as usually there is a critical interplay between an individual runner's biomechanical predisposition, muscle and flexibility imbalances, and training methods. Because these injuries are related to cumulative overload of the lower extremity, they often come on insidiously and a strong familiarity with the common warning signs is necessary for prompt detection. This article reviews the essential physical exam and diagnostic imaging findings to diagnose and treat the majority of running related stress fractures and soft tissue overuse injuries. There is also an extensive review of the pertinent anatomy, pathophysiology, and biomechanics to help guide the prescription of physical therapy, shoe modifications, orthotics, and provide training parameters for injury prevention.

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