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Steven D. Kugelmass
Dept. of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Eric A. Hoffman
Cardiothoracic Imaging Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA


Non-invasive measurements of in vivo tissue blood flow have been attempted by a number of imaging technologies including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cine X-ray computed tomography (CT). To date, quantitative imaging of tissue blood flow with MRI has been relatively unsuccessful because of the uncertain relationship between image brightness and amount of contrast material. SPECT and PET have been more successful, particularly PET where appropriate attenuation corrections have been achieved. Our interest in the use of X-ray CT scanning for the measurement of tissue perfusion, particularly myocardial and pulmonary blood flow, has been based on the additional anatomic information from CT which is not available using SPECT or PET scanning.
We describe here techniques for evaluating blood flow to the lungs and heart using dynamic X-ray CT and radiopaque contrast media. We develop and present mathematical techniques for evaluating blood flow from the time-density curves of regions of interest selected from the primary feeding blood vessel (aorta, coronary artery, or pulmonary artery) and the myocardium or lung parenchyma.

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Bow shocks on a jet-like solid body shape. Thermal Sciences 2004, 2004. Pulsed, supersonic fuel jets - their characteristics and potential for improved diesel engine injection. PULSED, SUPERSONIC FUEL JETS - THEIR CHARACTERISTICS AND POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVED DIESEL ENGINE INJECTION
View of engine compartment components (left). Plots of temperature distributions in centreplane, forward of engine (right). CHT-04 - Advances in Computational Heat Transfer III, 2004. Devel... DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL THERMOFLUIDS CFD ANALYSIS
Pratt & Whitney's F-135 Joint Strike Fighter Engine under test in Florida is a 3600F class jet engine. TURBINE-09, 2009. Turbine airfoil leading edge stagnation aerodynamics and heat transfe... TURBINE AIRFOIL LEADING EDGE STAGNATION AERODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER - A REVIEW
Refractive index reconstructed field. (a) Second iteration. (b) Fourth iteration. Radiative Transfer - VI, 2010. Theoretical development for refractive index reconstruction from a radiative ... THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT FOR REFRACTIVE INDEX RECONSTRUCTION FROM A RADIATIVE TRANSFER EQUATION-BASED ALGORITHM
Two inclusion test, four collimated sources. Radiative Transfer - VI, 2010. New developments in frequency domain optical tomography. Part II. Application with a L-BFGS associated to an inexa... NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY. PART II. APPLICATION WITH A L-BFGS ASSOCIATED TO AN INEXACT LINE SEARCH