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ALGORITHMS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF MYOCARDIAL AND LUNG PARENCHYMAL BLOOD FLOW VIA CINE X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Steven D. Kugelmass
Dept. of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Eric A. Hoffman
Cardiothoracic Imaging Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Abstract

Non-invasive measurements of in vivo tissue blood flow have been attempted by a number of imaging technologies including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cine X-ray computed tomography (CT). To date, quantitative imaging of tissue blood flow with MRI has been relatively unsuccessful because of the uncertain relationship between image brightness and amount of contrast material. SPECT and PET have been more successful, particularly PET where appropriate attenuation corrections have been achieved. Our interest in the use of X-ray CT scanning for the measurement of tissue perfusion, particularly myocardial and pulmonary blood flow, has been based on the additional anatomic information from CT which is not available using SPECT or PET scanning.
We describe here techniques for evaluating blood flow to the lungs and heart using dynamic X-ray CT and radiopaque contrast media. We develop and present mathematical techniques for evaluating blood flow from the time-density curves of regions of interest selected from the primary feeding blood vessel (aorta, coronary artery, or pulmonary artery) and the myocardium or lung parenchyma.

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