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Analysis of heat transfer and fluid movement in case of fire in a road tunnel

Peter Vidmar
Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transportation, University of Ljubljana, Pot pomorscakov 4, SI- 6320 Portoroz, Slovenia

Stojan Petelin
Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transportation, University of Ljubljana, Pot pomorscakov 4, SI- 6320 Portoroz, Slovenia

Abstract

The basic aim of this treatise is to research into relevant features of the control and management of fire event in a road tunnel. The analyses is based on the numerical simulation of combustion product behaviour in a mid size road tunnel. The modelling approach is based on computation fluid dynamics to simulate the turbulent fluid movement and heat transfer including thermal radiation. An approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low Mach number applications is used in the model. The approximation involves the filtering out of acoustic waves while allowing for large variations in temperature and density. The simulation of the tunnel cut out is performed with the computer code FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator). Two different tunnel ventilation scenarios are discussed. The first assumes the axial ventilation through the tunnel, and the second assumes the smoke extraction at the tunnel ceiling. The analysis is aimed to find the main fluid streams of combustion products from the fire source and of the fresh air.
It is believed that the present research, the methodology applied and its findings should promote and improve safety and reliability of fire safety in road tunnels and to cope with the complex contemporary logistic demands of safety and reliability in the transportation of passengers and goods.

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