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Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Factor de Impacto: 1.241 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 1.349 SJR: 0.356 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Imprimir: 0731-8898
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2019028792
pages 165-172

Analysis of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel in Blood Donors in Relation to Smoking—A Comparative Study

Achummantakath Hashim
Lecturer/Toxicologist, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
Haneena Fathima
Medical Officer, RHCDC, Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
Rashid C. S. Muhammed
Medical Officer, RHCDC, Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
D. R. Dsouzac Neevan
Biostatistician, Associate Professor, Biostatistics, KS Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India


Donor blood is usually screened for some risk factors, such as hepatitis, HIV, and malarial parasites, but it is not routinely screened for heavy metals although their adverse effects on the human body have been proved by a number of studies. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in donor blood. A semistructured questionnaire was prepared and given to participants. It showed that 79% (two groups: 65 smokers and 65 nonsmokers) smoked at least one cigarette per day. Collected blood samples were then subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In comparing blood levels between smoking and nonsmoking participants, we noted a high positive correlation between lead and nickel concentrations. There were statistically significant correlations between cadmium, lead, and nickel concentrations in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, because a substantial percentage of blood donors may be smokers and blood donation does not always meet demand, it would be difficult to completely exclude smokers from donating blood. Our findings indicate the need to screen for heavy metals when transfusing blood to the elderly, neonates, and infants, and to avoid transfusion of blood and blood products if levels are in the toxic range.


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