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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Factor de Impacto: 2.9 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Imprimir: 0743-4863
ISSN En Línea: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v25.i4.10
pages 305-345

Current Data on ATP-Containing Liposomes and Potential Prospects To Enhance Cellular Energy Status for Hepatic Applications

V. Korb
AGEPS, APHP, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris, F-75006 France
K. Tep
AGEPS, APHP, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris, F-75006 France
V. Escriou
Inserm, U640, Paris; CNRS, UMR8151, Paris, F-75006; Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Pharmacie, Chemical and Genetic Pharmacology Laboratory, Paris, F-75270; Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Paris, F-75005 France
C. Richard
Inserm, U640, Paris; CNRS, UMR8151, Paris, F-75006; Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Pharmacie, Chemical and Genetic Pharmacology Laboratory, Paris, F-75270; Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Paris, F-75005 France
D. Scherman
Inserm, U640, Paris; CNRS, UMR8151, Paris, F-75006; Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Pharmacie, Chemical and Genetic Pharmacology Laboratory, Paris, F-75270; Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, Paris, F-75005 France
L. Cynober
Laboratoire de Biologie de la Nutrition, UPRES EA 2498, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris, F-75006 France
J. C. Chaumeil
AGEPS, APHP, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris, France; Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique, UPRES EA2498, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris,F-75006 France
G. Dumortier
Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique, UPRES EA2498, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques (Paris Descartes), Paris, F-75006 France

SINOPSIS

The pharmacological use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), although promising, is restricted due to poor cellular penetration and drastic hydrolysis that is markedly accelerated in vivo by ectoenzymes. In the literature, liposomes have proven efficient in offering a physical barrier to extracellular enzymes and favor penetration into cells. First, this review addresses the issues raised by ATP development in pharmaceutics. Second, studies conducted with ATP liposomally entrapped (lipo-ATP) are described, including pharmaco-technical formulation engineering and related models of assessment. Finally, potential directions for research to better target ATP penetration into the liver are considered.
Lipo-ATP were formulated for a number of applications, including sepsis-related disorders; spermatozoid alteration; brain ischemia episodes; and ophthalmic, cardiac, and hepatic use. Key formulation parameters need to be carefully considered to optimize stability and entrapment yield value, and to define the manufacturing process. Positive lipids, such as stearylamine, increase entrapment yield value by electrostatic interaction with negatively charged ATP. A freezing-thawing step in the manufacturing process considerably increases entrapment yield value. Lipo-ATP were assessed using cell culture, isolated organs, and animal experimental models. Very promising results were obtained with antimyosin PEGylated immunoliposomes using isolated rat hearts and experimental myocardial infarction in rabbits. In hepatic applications, lipo-ATP are effective in preventing liver injury during shock and to improve the energy status of cold-stored rat liver, in particular, if liposomes are loaded with apolipoprotein E (ApoE). For liver delivery, liposome size needs to be lower than 100 nm to allow diffusion through the Disse space, but liposome flexibility and lipid content may also influence liver uptake. The role of the liposome charge remains unclear. ApoE and the ligand for the asialoglycoprotein receptor [ASGPr) were both used in the literature, but the ASGPr seems more promising. Ligand-ASGPr interaction is based on the sugar preference (N-acetylgalactosamine>>galactose), the antennary structure (tetra>tri>di>monoantennary), and sugar spacing. Numerous high-affinity ligands have been extracted or designed to target hepatocytes, which can be classified according to their origin (i.e., natural, hemisynthetic, or synthetic). Synthetic ASGPr, such as Gal-C4-Chol (cholesten-5-yloxy-N-(4-((1-imino-2-D-thiogalactosylethyl)formamide), are composed of a lipid anchor (e.g., cholesteryl), a spacer (C2 to C6 chain), and a sugar head (galactose or lactose). The formulation includes ligand incorporation, by either simple preincubation or covalent graft, onto preformulated liposomes or direct mixing with other lipids. The ligand-loaded liposomes encapsulated pharmacological agents, markers, or plasmid DNA. Interesting results were obtained with antitumor or antioxidant agents to promote drug penetration in cell culture (e.g., primary rat hepatocyte or HepG2) and specific targeting to hepatocyte in isolated perfused liver (pharmacokinetic studies). Effectiveness was demonstrated in experimental models (e.g., tumor-bearing animals and hepatotoxic models). These targeted formulations were less toxic than standard formulations and controls. A development scheme that can be applied to other drugs, which may benefit from improved hepatic targeting, is proposed to optimize liposome characteristics and ligand structure, including verifications such as the displacement-binding test, ligand incorporation, cell internalization, tissue diffusion, organ and receptor specificity, and efficiency in experimental models.