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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Imprimir: 0278-940X
ISSN En Línea: 1943-619X

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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v45.i1-6.170
pages 321-365

Review: Most Recent Advancements in Digital Signal Processing of the Phonocardiogram

Louis-Gilles Durand
Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal, Montreal Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7
Philippe Pibarot
Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montreal, Montreal Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7


The objective of the present paper is to provide a detailed review of the most recent developments in instrumentation and signal processing of digital phonocardiography and heart auscultation. After a short introduction, the paper presents a brief history of heart auscultation and phonocardiography, which is followed by a summary of the basic theories and controversies regarding the genesis of the heart sounds. The application of spectral analysis and the potential of new time-frequency representations and cardiac acoustic mapping to resolve the controversies and better understand the genesis and transmission of heart sounds and murmurs within the heart-thorax acoustic system are reviewed. The most recent developments in the application of linear predictive coding, spectral analysis, time-frequency representation techniques, and pattern recognition for the detection and follow-up of native and prosthetic valve degeneration and dysfunction are also presented in detail. New areas of research and clinical applications and areas of potential future developments are then highlighted. The Final section is a discussion about a multidegree of freedom theory on the origin of the heart sounds and murmurs, which is completed by the authors' conclusion.

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