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Atomization and Sprays
Factor de Impacto: 1.262 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 1.518 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Imprimir: 1044-5110
ISSN En Línea: 1936-2684

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Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.v10.i3-5.70
pages 355-386

VIEWS ON THE STRUCTURE OF TRANSIENT DIESEL SPRAYS

Gregory J. Smallwood
Metrology Research Centre, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6
Omer L. Gulder
National Research Council Canada, ICPET, Combustion Research Group, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

SINOPSIS

There has been tremendous change over the last few decades in the operating conditions of diesel fuel injection systems and engines, and in the diagnostic tools and numerical models available to evaluate them. Improvements in the diagnostic techniques coinciding with changes in diesel injector technology have brought about an entirety different view of the breakup of liquid in current diesel sprays. A detailed examination of the history and current understanding of the structure of the dense core region in transient diesel sprays is presented.
Diagnostic methods are reviewed, and the appropriate uses are discussed. Of the techniques currently available, tomography is the most appropriate for determining the structure of the dense core region. Conductivity is not recommended. Line-of-sight techniques are recommended only for studying the periphery of the spray. Due to its greater contrast, high-intensity Mie scattering is preferred over line-of-sight methods for liquid spray penetration distance measurements. Advances in phase-Doppler interferometry are required to provide drop size and velocity measurements in the near-nozzle region.
A review of the spray structure and breakup mechanisms is presented. The structure of the spray has been shown to be completely atomized at or near the nozzle tip, with nozzle cavitation and turbulence instabilities as the dominant breakup mechanisms. Buckling may be responsible for breakup during the very early phase of injection. Aerodynamic shear may cause some secondary atomization, but its role in breakup is far less significant than previously thought. Cavitation affects jet breakup through the bursting and collapsing vapor cavities, thus contributing to the disintegration of liquid, resulting in a mixture of bubbles and liquid occupying most of the cross-sectional area, and through increasing the turbulence intensity, thus contributing to the instability of the liquid jet. The turbulence instability, along with pressure fluctuations in the nozzle, cause variation in the exit velocity of the droplets, resulting in temporal and spatial clustering of the droplets in the plume.
The results of recent research on the liquid spray penetration distance and drop size have been summarized. For liquid spray penetration distance, the orifice diameter is the dominant injection parameter, and ambient density is the dominant engine parameter, although ambient temperature is also significant. Fuel properties have been shown to have an effect on the liquid spray penetration distance, but further research is required to draw significant conclusions. For drop size, injection pressure and orifice diameter are the known dominant parameters.
The evidence for complete atomization of diesel sprays near the nozzle has come from a variety of sources, including tomographic imaging of the internal structure, microphotography of the near-nozzle region, diffraction droplet sizes that are greater on the periphery than the centerline, infrared multiwavelength extinction droplet sizing, and internal flow studies.


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