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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Factor de Impacto: 1.841 Factor de Impacto de 5 años: 1.927 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Imprimir: 1045-4403
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v21.i3.40
pages 267-290

Driving Mechanisms of Passive and Active Transport Across Cellular Membranes as the Mechanisms of Cell Metabolism and Development as well as the Mechanisms of Cellular Distance Reactions on Hormonal Expression and the Immune Response

Michail R. Ponizovskiy
A.A.Bogomoletz Kiev National Medical Universary; Laboratory Biochemistry and Toxicology, Kiev Regional p/n Hospital, Kiev, Ukraine


The article presents mechanisms of cell metabolism, cell development, cell activity, and maintenance of cellular stability. The literature is reviewed from the point of view of these concepts. The balance between anabolic and catabolic processes induces chemical potentials in the extracellular and intracellular media. The chemical potentials of these media are defined as the driving forces of both passive and active transport of substances across cellular membranes. The driving forces of substance transport across cellular membranes as in cellular metabolism and in immune responses and hormonal expressions are considered in the biochemical and biophysical models, reflecting the mechanisms for maintenance of stability of the internal medium and internal energy of an organism. The interactions of passive transport and active transport of substances across cellular walls promote cell proliferation, as well as the mechanism of cellular capacitors, promoting remote reactions across distance for hormonal expression and immune responses. The offered concept of cellular capacitors has given the possibility to explain the mechanism of remote responses of cells to new situations, resulting in the appearance of additional agents. The biophysical model develops an explanation of some cellular functions: cellular membrane action have been identified with capacitor action, based on the similarity of the structures and as well as on similarity of biophysical properties of electric data that confirm the action of the compound-specific interactions of cells within an organism, promoting hormonal expressions and immune responses to stabilize the thermodynamic system of an organism. Comparison of a cellular membrane action to a capacitor has given the possibility for the explanations of exocytosis and endocytosis mechanisms, internalization of the receptor-ligand complex, selection as a receptor reaction to a ligand by immune responses or hormonal effects, reflecting cellular distance reactions on the hormonal expressions, immune responses, and specificity of the mechanisms of immune reactions. Reviewing current research of cell activity, explanations are presented of mechanisms of apoptosis, autophagy, hormonal expression, and immune responses from the point of view of described cellular mechanisms. Thermodynamic laws are used to confirm the importance of the actions of these mechanisms for maintenance of stability of the internal medium and internal energy of an organism.

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