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Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
SJR: 0.117 SNIP: 0.228 CiteScore™: 0.17

ISSN Imprimir: 0896-2960
ISSN En Línea: 2162-6553

Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevPhysRehabilMed.v22.i1-4.90
pages 103-178

Rehabilitation for Multiple Sclerosis in Adults (I); Impairment and Impact on Functioning and Quality of Life: An Overview

Amparo Martinez-Assucena
Department of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), Hospital Requena, Requena, Spain
Sven-Uno Marnetoft
Rehabilitation Science, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden
Teresa Roig Rovira
Department of Psychology and Neuropsychology of Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain
Javier Hernandez-San-Miguel
Department of History of Science and Documentation, University of Valencia, Spain
Montserrat Bernabeu
Acquired Brain Injury Department of Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain
Montserrat Martinell-Gispert-Sauch
Acquired Brain Injury Department of Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, central nervous system, disabling disease. International Classification of Functioning and relevant generic and specific outcome measures are reported. Problems perceived by people with MS (PwMS) affect mobility, sight, continence, feeding, or cognitive impairment, depending on whether acute, chronic, or long-term disability was involved. The most common body function and structure impairments leading to disability and reported by health care professionals are fatigue, weakness, decreased fitness, sensory disorders, pain, upper motor neuron syndromes, ataxia and tremor, balance and postural control problems, gait pattern disorders, visual problems, and neurogenic lower urinary tract and bowel dysfunction; sexual, autonomic, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric impairment; dysarthrophonia, dysphagia, and respiratory and sleep disorders. The most frequently affected activities and relationships include mobility, domestic life, community and social activities, remunerative employment, interpersonal relationships, self-care, learning and applying knowledge, and economic life. Limitations in activities of daily life because of fatigue, pain, visual problems, incontinence, sexual and cognitive impairment, depressive disorders, sleep disorders, economic pressure, employment status, and lack of information have an impact on quality of life (QoL). Increased caregiving tasks, psychological burden, limitation in activities and participation, and reduced QoL have a profound influence on caregivers. This paper summarizes the perception of problems and needs, the disease's impact on functioning and QoL of PwMS, and the impact on their significant others and caregivers, according to health and social research.