## THE ROLE OF BRIAN SPALDING IN THE EARLY DAYS OF TURBULENCE MODEL DEVELOPMENT
## SinopsisThe presentation gives a brief account of the development of turbulence models in the research group of Professor D. Brian Spalding at Imperial College in the late 1960's and early 1970's. When in the mid 60's the research in this group shifted from integral methods to numerical field methods solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, Brian Spalding recognized the need for
sufficiently general models for the turbulent transport terms in these equations. The first calculations in the group carried out for 2D thin-shear flows employed
the Prandtl mixing-length model relating the turbulent (or eddy) viscosity to the mean-velocity gradient. Brian Spalding realized soon that this model is not adequate for flows with separation. He therefore started a major research activity on the development and testing of models in which the eddy viscosity is related to the kinetic energy k and the length scale L of the turbulent motion. He
recognized that for sufficient model generality both these turbulence parameters need to be determined from a transport equation, i.e. the development concentrated on two-equation models. The model form of the k-equation was already well established in the literature, while various forms of the length-scale determining equation had been proposed, and the choice of the dependent variable for this equation was not obvious. Brian Spalding initiated and carried out research on the development of models using equations for the product kL and for the square of the fluctuation frequency, W ~ k/L |

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