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DOI: 10.1615/ICHMT.2000.TherSieProcVol2.840
171 pages

Dimitra Sakellari
Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, S-100 44, Sweden

Per Lundqvist
Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, S-100 44, Sweden


The overall efficiency of a heat pump system i.e. heat source, heat pump unit and distribution system, is strongly affected by the design temperature levels of the system. The temperature levels influence the performance, in every single process from the time that energy flows from the ambient to the heat source until the heat is released from the building envelope to the environment. The heat exchanging processes in every step affect the energy flow, the losses and generally the energy efficiency of the heating system.
The objective of this paper is to show how the different temperature levels influence the energy efficiency and the performance of a heat pump system for domestic applications. The heat pump unit and the heat distribution system are approached as an integrated system. Hence, calculations are performed in order to estimate possibilities for energy savings and for improving the overall efficiency of a heating system based on a heat pump.
The results show mainly the increasing call reducing the supply temperature of heat distribution systems. The influence of the refrigerant characteristics on optimal heat pump designs will be discussed.

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