Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest
Portail numérique Bibliothèque numérique eBooks Revues Références et comptes rendus Collections
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
SJR: 0.468 SNIP: 0.905 CiteScore™: 1.65

ISSN Imprimer: 1072-8325
ISSN En ligne: 1940-431X

Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2020029900
pages 61-90

DIVERSITY CONTENT IN STEM? HOW FACULTY VALUES TRANSLATE INTO CURRICULAR INCLUSION UNEVENLY FOR DIFFERENT SUBJECTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMS

Juan Carlos Garibay
University of Virginia, 288 Ruffner Hall, 405 Emmet Street S., Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Shirley Vincent
Vincent Evaluation Consulting, 1216 E. 28th Street, Tulsa, OK 74114, USA
Paul Ong
University of California, Los Angeles, 5287 Public Affairs, 337 Charles E. Young Dr. E., Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA

RÉSUMÉ

While addressing racial inequality in the higher education curriculum and promoting an inclusive curriculum in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) remain contentious issues, little is known about the processes by which racial inequality in the curriculum manifests. Theory and higher education research on curricular development indicate that faculty values play a critical role in the curricular decision-making process, influencing what content is or is not included in the curriculum. However, research has yet to examine how faculty members' values toward diversity content translate into the actual inclusion of that content in comparison to other subject areas in degree programs, and whether that relationship varies across institutional factors. To address this theoretical and empirical gap in the literature this study focuses on environment/sustainability programs, a growing interdisciplinary STEM field. Using frameworks of curriculum development and campus climate along with a national sample of 227 interdisciplinary environmental and sustainability (IES) programs within 149 higher education institutions, findings show that the strength of the relationship between faculty subject values and curricular inclusion is lower for diversity content (i.e., environmental justice, EJ), business, and engineering and technology compared to chemistry, biology, and natural resources management. Additionally, the relationship between faculty values toward diversity content and its inclusion is greater at master's colleges and universities. Implications of the findings for research, policy, and practice as well as for increasing STEM curricular diversity and inclusivity are discussed.

RÉFÉRENCES

  1. Adelman, C. (1992). Tourists in our own land: Cultural literacies and the college curriculum. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. .

  2. Agyeman, J., & Crouch, C. (2004). The contribution of environmental justice to sustainability in higher education. In P. B. Corcoran & A. E. J. Wals (Eds.), Higher education and the challenge of sustainability: Problematics, promise and practice (pp. 113-130). Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. .

  3. Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. .

  4. Altbach, P. G. (1991). The racial dilemma. In P. G. Altbach & K. Lomotey (Eds.), The racial crisis in American higher education (pp. 3-17). New York: State University of New York Press. .

  5. Anderson, M. L. (1990). Changing curriculum in higher education. In C. F. Conrad & J. G. Haworth (Eds.), Curriculum in transition: Perspectives on the undergraduate experience (pp. 119-144). Boston: Ginn and Co. .

  6. Antonio, A. L. (2002). Faculty of color reconsidered: Reassessing contributions to scholarship. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(5), 582-602. .

  7. Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. .

  8. Awbrey, S. M. (2005). General education reform as organizational change: Integrating cultural and structural change. The Journal ofGeneral Education, 54(1), 1-21. .

  9. Bauer-Wolf, J. (2017). Ground to a halt. Inside Higher Ed: Washington D.C. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2017/04/18/harvey-mudd-cancels-classes-after-student-protests-over-issues-race-workload-and. .

  10. Baum, C. F. (2006). An introduction to modern econometrics using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press. .

  11. Beckwith, J., & Huang, F. (2005). Should we make a fuss? A case for social responsibility in science. Nature Biotechnology, 23(12), 1479-1480. .

  12. Bowman, N. A. (2010). College diversity experiences and cognitive development: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 80(1), 4-33. .

  13. Bowman, N. A. (2011). Promoting participation in a diverse democracy: A meta-analysis of college diversity experiences and civic engagement. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 29-68. .

  14. Borrego, M., & Newswander, L. K. (2010). Definitions of interdisciplinary research: Toward graduate-level interdisciplinary learning outcomes. Review of Higher Education, 34, 61-84. .

  15. Brayboy, B. M. J. (2005). Toward a tribal critical race theory in education. The Urban Review, 37(5), 425-446. .

  16. Bullard, R. D. (2000). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality (3rd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. .

  17. Bullard, R. D. (Ed.). (1993). Confronting environmental racism: Voices from the grassroots. Cambridge, MA: South End Press. .

  18. Carlone, H. B., & Johnson, A. (2007). Understanding the science experiences of successful women of color: Science identity as an analytic lens. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(8), 1187-1218. .

  19. Carnevale, A. P., Strohl, J., & Melton, M. (2011). What's it worth? The economic value of college majors. Georgetown University, Center on Education and the Workforce. .

  20. Chang, M. J. (2002a). The impact of an undergraduate diversity course requirement on students' racial views and attitudes. The Journal of General Education, 51(1), 21-42. .

  21. Chang, M. J. (2002b). Preservation or transformation: Where's the real educational discourse on diversity? The Review of Higher Education, 25(2), 125-140. .

  22. Chamany, K. (2001). Ninos desaparecidos [Missing Children]. Journal of College Science Teaching, 31, 61-65. .

  23. Clark, C., Fasching-Varner, K. J., & Brimhall-Vargas, M. (2012). Occupying the academy: Just how important is diversity work in higher education? Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. .

  24. Commission for Racial Justice. (1987). Toxic wastes and race in the United States: A national report on the racial and socioeconomic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. New York: United Church of Christ. .

  25. Conrad, C. F., & Haworth, J. G. (Eds.). (1990). Curriculum in transition: Perspectives on the undergraduate experience. Boston: Ginn and Co. .

  26. Conrad, C. F., & Pratt, A. M. (1983). Making decisions about the curriculum: From metaphor to model. The Journal of Higher Education, 54(1), 16-30. .

  27. Cox, B. E., McIntosh, K. L., Reason, R. D., & Terenzini, P. T. (2014). Working with missing data in higher education research: A primer and real-world example. Review of Higher Education, 37, 377-401. .

  28. Delgado Bernal, D. (2002). Critical race theory, Latino critical theory, and critical race-gendered episte-mologies: Recognizing students of color as holders and creators of knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105-127. .

  29. Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (Eds.). (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: New York University Press. .

  30. Dong, Y., & Peng, C.-Y. J. (2013). Principled missing data methods for researchers. SpringerPlus, 2, 222. DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-222. .

  31. Engberg, M. (2004). Improving intergroup relations in higher education: A critical examination of the influence of educational interventions on racial bias. Review of Educational Research, 74(4), 473-524. .

  32. Engberg, M., & Mayhew, M. J. (2007). The influence of first-year "success" courses on student learning and democratic outcomes. Journal of College Student Development, 48(3), 241-258. .

  33. Forman, P. (1987). Behind quantum electronics: National security as basis for physical research in the United States: Part 1. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 18(1), 149-229. .

  34. Gaff, J. G., & Ratcliff, J. L. (Eds.). (1997). Handbook of the undergraduate curriculum: A comprehensive guide to the purposes, structures, practices, and change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. .

  35. Garibay, J. C. (2015). STEM students' social agency and views on working for social change: Are STEM disciplines developing socially and civically responsible students? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(5), 610-632. .

  36. Garibay, J. C. (2018). Beyond traditional measures of STEM success: Long-term predictors of social agency and conducting research for social change. Research in Higher Education, 59(3), 349-381. .

  37. Garibay, J. C., & Vincent, S. (2018). Racially inclusive climates within degree programs and increasing student of color enrollment: An examination of environmental/sustainability programs. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 11(2), 201-220. .

  38. Garibay, J. C., Ong, P., & Vincent, S. (2016). Program and institutional predictors of environmental justice inclusion in U.S. post-secondary environmental and sustainability curricula. Environmental Education Research, 22(7), 919-942. .

  39. Gelobter, M., Dorsey, M., Fields, L., Goldtooth, T., Mendiratta, A., Moore, R., & Torres, G. (2005). The soul of environmentalism: Rediscovering transformational politics in the 21st century. Oakland, CA: Redefining Progress. Retrieved from http://community-wealth.org/sites/clone.community-wealth.org/files/downloads/paper-gelobter-et-al.pdf. .

  40. Gonzalez, K. P. (2002). Campus culture and the experiences of Chicano students in a predominantly white university. Urban Education, 37, 193-218. .

  41. Greene, W. H. (2012). Econometrics analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. .

  42. Gumport, P. J. (1988). Curricula as signposts of cultural change. The Review of Higher Education, 12(1), 49-61. .

  43. Gusa, D. L. (2010). White institutional presence: The impact of whiteness on campus climate. Harvard Educational Review, 80(4), 464-489. .

  44. Hammonds, E. M., & Herzig, R. M. (Eds.). (2009) The nature of difference: Sciences of race in the United States from Jefferson to genomics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. .

  45. Harding, S. (2006). Science and social inequality: Feminist and postcolonial issues. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. .

  46. Harper, S. R., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Nine themes in campus racial climates and implications for institutional transformation. New Directions for Student Services, 120, 7-24. .

  47. Holdren, J. P. (2008). Science and technology for sustainable well-being. AAAS Presidential Address. Science Magazine, 319, 424-434. .

  48. Huang, Y.-R., & Healy, C. C. (1997). The relations of Holland-typed majors to students' freshman and senior work values. Research in Higher Education, 38(4), 455-477. .

  49. Hubball, H., & Gold, N. (2007). The scholarship of curriculum practice and undergraduate program reform: Integrating theory into practice. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 112, 5-14. .

  50. Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup mediation research. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 595-610. .

  51. Hurtado, S., Milem, J. F., Clayton-Pedersen, A. R., & Allen, W. R. (1998). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity: Educational policy and practice. Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 279-302. DOI: 10.1353/rhe.1998.0003. .

  52. Hurtado, S., Alvarez, C., Guillermo-Wann, C., Cuellar, M., & Arellano, L. (2012). A model for diverse learning environments: The scholarship on creating and assessing conditions for student success. In J. C. Smart & M. B. Paulsen (Eds.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (vol. 27). Springer. .

  53. Johnson, A. C. (2007). Unintended consequences: How science professors discourage women of color. Science Education, 91(5), 805-821. .

  54. Kaza, S. (2002). Teaching ethics through environmental justice. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 7(1), 99-109. .

  55. Lattuca, L. R., & Stark, J. S. (2009). Shaping the college curriculum: Academic plans in context. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. .

  56. Leslie, S. W. (1993). The Cold War and American Science: The military-industrial-academic complex at MIT and Stanford. New York: Columbia University Press. .

  57. Levine, A. (1993). Diversity on campus. In A. Levine (Ed.), The higher leaning in America: 1980-2000 (pp. 333-343). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. .

  58. Li, D., & Koedel, C. (2017). Representation and salary gaps by race-ethnicity and gender at selective public universities. Educational Researcher, 46(7), 343-354. .

  59. Little, R. J., & Rubin, D. B. (2002). Statistical analysis with missing data (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley. .

  60. Lozano, R. (2010). Diffusion of sustainable development in universities' curricula: An empirical example from Cardiff University. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(7), 637-644. .

  61. Maramba, D. (2008). Understanding campus climate through the voices of Filipina/o American college students. College Student Journal, 42, 1045-1060. .

  62. Mayhew, M. J., & Fernandez, S. D. (2007). Pedagogical practices that contribute to social justice outcomes. Review of Higher Education, 31(1), 55-80. .

  63. Mayhew, M. J., Grunwald, H. E., & Dey, E. L. (2005). Curriculum matters: Creating a positive climate for diversity from the student perspective. Research in Higher Education, 46(4), 389-412. .

  64. McClure, C. P., & Lucius, A. L. (2010). Implementing and evaluating a chemistry course in chemical ethics and civic responsibility. Journal of Chemical Education, 87, 1171-1175. .

  65. McGowan, A. H. (2005). Genes and race in the classroom: Science in a social context. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34, 30-33. .

  66. McKeown-Ice, R., & Dendiger, R. (2000). Socio-political-cultural foundations of environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 31(4), 37-45. .

  67. Middlecamp, C. H., Jordan, T., Shachter, A. M., Lottridge, S., & Oates, K. K. (2006). Chemistry, society, and civic engagement (Pt. 1): The SENCER Project. Journal of Chemical Education, 83, 1301-1307. .

  68. Milem, J. F., & Umbach, P. D. (2003). Examining the perpetuation hypothesis: The influence of pre-college factors on students' predispositions regarding diversity activities in college. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 611-624. .

  69. Milem, J. F., Chang, M. J., & Antonio, A. L. (2005). Making diversity work on campus: A research-based perspective. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges and Universities. .

  70. Museus, S. D., & Jayakumar, U. M. (2011). Creating campus cultures: Fostering success among diverse student populations. New York: Taylor & Francis. .

  71. National Academy of Engineering. (2005). Educating the engineer of2020: Adapting engineering education to a new century. Washington DC: National Academies Press. .

  72. National Academy of Sciences. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Washington DC: National Academies Press. .

  73. National Academy of Sciences. (2011). Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America's science and technology talent at the crossroads. Committee on underrepresented groups and the expansion of the science and engineering workforce pipeline. Washington DC: National Academies Press. .

  74. National Science Foundation, National Center for Engineering Statistics. (2011a). Graduate students and postdoctorates in science and engineering: Fall 2008. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/ nsf11311. .

  75. National Science Foundation. (2011b). Empowering the nation through discovery and innovation-NSF strategic plan for fiscal years (FY) 2011-2016. Retrieved from https://www.nsf.gov/news/strategicplan/. .

  76. Navarro, M. (2009). In environmental push, looking to add diversity. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/10/science/earth/10move.html7_r0. .

  77. Neumann, R., Parry, S., & Becher, T. (2002). Teaching and learning in their disciplinary contexts: A conceptual analysis. Studies in Higher Education, 27(4), 405-417. .

  78. Newman, C. B. (2011). Access and success for African American engineers and computer scientists: A case study of two predominantly white public research universities (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California Los Angeles. .

  79. Nicholls, G. M., Wolfe, H., Besterfield-Sacre, M., Shuman, L. J., & Larpkiattaworn, S. (2007). A method for identifying variables for predicting STEM enrollment. Journal of Engineering Education, 96(1), 33-44. .

  80. Nussbaum, M. M. (2013). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of environmental justice in higher education (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgia Southern University: Statesboro, GA. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi7article=1878&context=etd. .

  81. President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2012). Engage to Excel: Producing one million additional college graduates with degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel. pdf. .

  82. Ratcliff, J. L., Johnson, D. K., & Gaff, J. G. (Eds.). (2004). Changing general education curriculum. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. .

  83. Rhoads, R. A. (1998). Freedom's web: Student activism in an age of cultural diversity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. .

  84. Sax, L. J. (2000). Citizenship development and the American college student. In T. Ehrlich (Ed.), Civic responsibility and higher education (pp. 3-18). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press. .

  85. Schneider, P. (2004). The genetics and evolution of human skin color: The case of Desiree's baby. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34, 20-22. .

  86. Shepard, P. M., Northridge, M. E., Prakash, S., & Stover, G. (2002). Preface: Advancing environmental justice through community-based participatory research. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(2), 139-140. .

  87. Shuman, L. J., Besterfeld-Sacre, M., & McGourty, J. (2005). The ABET professional skills-can they be taught? Can they be assessed? Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 41-55. .

  88. Sinharay, S., Stern, H. S., & Russell, D. (2001). The use of multiple imputation for the analysis of missing data. Psychological Methods, 6, 317-329. .

  89. Slaughter, S. (1997). Class, race and gender and the construction of postsecondary curricula in the United States: Social movement, professionalization and political economic theories of curricular change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29(1), 1-30. .

  90. Smart, J. C. (1982). Faculty teaching goals: A test of Holland's theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(4), 180-188. .

  91. Smart, J. C., & Thompson, M. D. (2001). The environmental identity scale and differentiation among environmental models in Holland's theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(3), 436-452. .

  92. Smart, J. C., & Umbach, P. D. (2007). Faculty and academic environments: Using Holland's theory to explore differences in how faculty structure undergraduate courses. Journal of College Student Development, 48(2), 183-195. .

  93. Solorzano, D. G., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. J. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1-2), 60-73. .

  94. Spender, D. (Ed.). (1981). Men's studies modified: The impact offeminism on the academic disciplines. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. .

  95. Taylor, D. E. (2007). Diversity and the environment: Myth-making and the status of minorities in the field. In R. Wilkinson & W. Freudenburg (Eds.), Equity and the Environment (pp. 89-147). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. .

  96. Taylor, D. E. (Ed.). (2010). Race, gender, and faculty diversity in environmental disciplines. In Environment and social justice: An international perspective (pp. 385-407). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. .

  97. Thompson, M. D., & Smart, J. C. (1999). Student competencies emphasized by faculty in disparate environments. Journal of College Student Development, 40(4), 365-376. .

  98. Tierney, W. G. (1989). Cultural politics and the curriculum in postsecondary education. The Journal of Education, 171(3), 72-88. .

  99. Umbach, P. D. (2006). The contribution of faculty of color to undergraduate education. Research in Higher Education, 47(3), 317-345. .

  100. Vaz, R. F. (2005). Connecting science and technology education with civic understanding: A model for engagement. Peer Review, 7(2), 13-16. .

  101. Vincent, S., & Focht, W. (2010). U.S. higher education environmental program managers' perspectives on curriculum design and core competencies: Implications for sustainability as a guiding framework. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 10, 164-183. .

  102. Vincent, S., & Mulkey, S. (2015). Transforming U.S. higher education to support sustainability science for a resilient future: The influence of institutional administrative organization. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 16(6), 341-363. .

  103. Vincent, S., Bunn, S., & Sloane, L. (2013a). Interdisciplinary environmental and sustainability education on the nation's campuses 2012: Curriculum design. Washington, DC: National Council for Science and the Environment. .

  104. Vincent, S., Bunn, S., & Stevens, S. (2013b). Sustainability education: Results from the 2012 census of U.S. four-year colleges and universities. Washington, DC: National Council for Science and the Environment. .

  105. Weston, T., & Seymour, E. (2006). Evaluation of Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Re-sponsibilities (SENCER) Project. National Center for Science and Civic Engagement. Retrieved from http://www.sencer.net/Assessment/pdfs/FINAL_REPORT_SENCER_12_21_06.pdf. .

  106. Zellner, A. (1962). An efficient method of estimating seemingly unrelated regressions and tests for aggregation bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 57(298), 348-368 .


Articles with similar content:

DESIGNING ONLINE SUPPORT GUIDES FOR LIBRARIANS MANAGING STEM MAKER ACTIVITIES
International Journal on Innovations in Online Education, Vol.2, 2018, issue 4
Mimi Recker, Victor R. Lee, Aubrey Rogowski
I JUST NEED SOMEONE WHO KNOWS THE ROPES: MENTORING AND FEMALE FACULTY IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol.18, 2012, issue 1
Karlene Hoo, Laura Hartin Weathers, Caryl Heintz, Charlotte Chorn Dunham
USING THE CONSTRUCT OF CARE TO FRAME ENGINEERING AS A CARING PROFESSION TOWARD PROMOTING YOUNG GIRLS' PARTICIPATION
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol.20, 2014, issue 1
Brenda M. Capobianco, Ji Hyun Yu
AN EXPLORATION OF GENDER DIVERSITY IN ENGINEERING PROGRAMS: A CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION-BASED PERSPECTIVE
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol.18, 2012, issue 1
David B. Knight, Lisa R. Lattuca, Alexander Yin, Travis York, Hyun Kyoung Ro, Gul Kremer
IMPROVING GENDER DISPARITY IN CONSTRUCTION EDUCATION USING EDUCATIONAL GAMES
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol.23, 2017, issue 4
James D. Goedert, Asregedew Woldesenbet, Saeed Rokooei