Abonnement à la biblothèque: Guest
Portail numérique Bibliothèque numérique eBooks Revues Références et comptes rendus Collections
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering
SJR: 0.468 SNIP: 0.905 CiteScore™: 1.65

ISSN Imprimer: 1072-8325
ISSN En ligne: 1940-431X

Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2020027889
pages 199-243

A SYSTEMATIC MAPPING OF SCHOLARSHIP ON BROADENING PARTICIPATION OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

Jeremi S. London
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Walter C. Lee
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Canek Phillips
Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005, USA 
Amy S. Van Epps
Harvard University, Cabot Science Library, LL16, 1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
Bevlee A. Watford
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

RÉSUMÉ

Trends in broadening participation of African Americans in engineering and computer science have not significantly improved despite significant investments and efforts of educators, practitioners, researchers, and policymakers. Given the lack of progress, it is imperative for the field of engineering education to synthesize and use insights from existing literature to readjust its strategy for addressing this persistent problem. Unfortunately, the work that has been done in this area is fragmented in disparate bodies of literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the landscape of existing scholarship germane to broadening participation in engineering and computer science, particularly as it relates to African Americans. The guiding research question is: What are the salient characteristics of literature on broadening the participation of African Americans in engineering and computer science? Using a systematic mapping methodology, we identified and screened 1180 scholarship records. We categorized and tabulated the 470 that met our eligibility criteria after extracting data on publication year, publication type, population race, population gender, segment, study type, and methods. Our results revealed numerous trends in this scholarship, dealing with both the focus of the scholarship as well as the manner in which it has been produced. As stakeholders continue working towards broadening participation of African Americans, we hope that this mapping review not only raises awareness of the current state of efforts dedicated to each segment of the K-12-to-workforce pathway, but also illuminates gaps in the literature yet to be filled.

RÉFÉRENCES

  1. Adams, R., Aldridge, D., Atman, C., Barker, L., Besterfield-Sacre, M., Bjorklund, S., & Young, M. (2006a). The research agenda for the new discipline of engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 95, 259-261.

  2. Adams, S., Berry, C., Brown, C., Grant, C., Mead, P., Smith, S., & Omer, I. S. (2006b). Panel-the experiences of African American women engineering faculty (p. 1). Proceedings of Frontiers in Education 36th Annual Conference, 28-31 Oct. 2006: IEEE.

  3. Ahn, J., Subramaniam, M., Bonsignore, E., Pellicone, A., Waugh, A., & Yip, J. (2014). "I want to be a game designer or scientist": Connected learning and developing identities with urban, African-American youth. Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS, 2, 657-664. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84937715851&partnerID=tZOtx3y1.

  4. Allen, W. (1992). The color of success: African-American college student outcomes at predominantly White and historically Black public colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62(1), 26-44.

  5. Anderson, E. L., Williams, K. L., Ponjuan, L., & Frierson, H. (2018). The 2018 Status Report on Engineering Education: A Snapshot of Diversity in Degrees Conferred in Engineering. Washington, DC: Association of Public & Land-grant Universities.

  6. Austin, C. Y. (2010). Perceived factors that influence career decision self-efficacy and engineering related goal intentions of African American high school students. Career & Technical Education Research, 35(3), 119-135. doi: 10.0.20.208/cter35.310.

  7. Berry, C., Brown, C., St. Omer, I., Adams, S., & Smith, M. (2007). A survey of teaching styles and classroom techniques to engage African American students in the engineering classroom (ASCS 2007-2543).Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.

  8. Black Degree Attainments in Engineering Field in Degree Attainments, Research & Studies, STEM fields. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1. Retrieved from http://www.jbhe.com/2012/08/black-degree-attainments-in-engineering/.

  9. Blacks Appear to Be Shut Out in Election of New Members to the National Academy of Engineering Field in Breaking News. (2014). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 4. Retrieved from https://www.jbhe.com/2014/02/blacks-appear-to-be-shut-out-in-election-of-new-members-to-the-national-academy-of-engineering/.

  10. Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (2008). The Craft of Research, 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  11. Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., Williams, J. W., & Fitzgerald, W. T. (2016). The Craft of Research, 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  12. Borrego, M., Foster, M. J., & Froyd, J. E. (2014). Systematic literature reviews in engineering education and other developing interdisciplinary fields. Journal of Engineering Education. doi:10.1002/jee.20038.

  13. Borrego, M., Froyd, J. E., & Hall, T. S. (2010). Diffusion of engineering education innovations: A survey of awareness and adoption rates in US engineering departments. Journal of Engineering Education, 99(3), 185-207.

  14. Bowe, M. L. S. (2012). Achievement emotions as predictors of high school science success among African-American and European American students. Humanities and Social Sciences. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2012-99231-045&site=ehost-live.

  15. Bowman, D. (2009). Studying up, down, sideways and through: Situated research and policy networks. The Future of Sociology: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Australian Sociological Association, 1-11.

  16. Brawner, C. E., Frillman, S. A., Lord, S. M., & Ohland, M. W. (2010). Work in progress-Flexibility and career opportunity as motivation for women selecting industrial engineering majors (p. 3). Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, United States BT - 2010 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE 2010), 27-30 Oct. 2010: IEEE. doi:10.1109/FIE.2010.5673416.

  17. Brown, N. W. (1997). Description of personality similarities and differences of a sample of Black and White female engineering students. Psychological Reports, 81(2), 603-610. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.6.603-610.

  18. Buncick, M. C., Betts, P. G., & Horgan, D. D. (2001). Using demonstrations as a contextual road map: enhancing course continuity and promoting active engagement in introductory college physics. International Journal of Science Education, 23(12), 1237-1255. doi: 10.0.4.56/09500690010025030.

  19. Buzzetto-More, N., Ukoha, O., & Rustagi, N. (2010). Unlocking the barriers to women and minorities in computer science and information systems studies: Results from a multi-methodological study conducted at two minority serving institutions. Journal of Information Technology Education, 9, 115-131.

  20. Carr, M. D. (2016). Closing the stem gap with culturally and cognitively appropriate cyber-instruction in an all-girl inner-city charter school stem program: A case study. The Sciences and Engineering. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2016-17133-045&site=ehost-live.

  21. Chang, M. J., Sharkness, J., Hurtado, S., & Newman, C. B. (2014). What matters in college for retaining aspiring scientists and engineers from underrepresented racial groups. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. doi:10.1002/tea.21146.

  22. Clapton, J., Rutter, D., & Sharif, N. (2009). SCIE Systematic Mapping Guidance. London, U.K.

  23. Clark, B. R. (1960). The "Cooling-Out" Function in Higher Education. The American Journal of Sociology, 65(6), 569-576. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2773649.

  24. Colby, S. L., & Ortman, J. M. (2015). Current population reports. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2015/demo/p25-1143.pdf.

  25. Cottledge, M. C. (2014). An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science. Humanities and Social Sciences. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2014-99150-010&site=ehost-live.

  26. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  27. Crosby, K., Ibekwe, S., Li, G., Pang, S.-S., & Lian, K. (2007). Tiered mentoring in a cross-disciplinary and multi-institutional research project. American Society for Engineering Education.

  28. Devore, J. (2012). Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences, 8th ed. Boston, MA: Brooks/Cole.

  29. Didion, C., Fortenberry, N. L., Cady, E., & National Academy of Engineering. (2012). Colloquy on Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Washington DC: National Academy of Engineering.

  30. Eccles, J. S., & Jacobs, J. E. (1986). Social forces shape math attitudes and performance. Signs: Journal of women in culture and society, 11(2), 367-80.

  31. Entwisle, D. R., & Hayduk, L. A. (1988). Lasting effects of elementary school. Sociology of Education, 61(3), 147-159. doi:10.2307/2112624.

  32. Felder, R. M., & Hadgraft, R. G. (2013). Educational practice and educational research in engineering: partners, antagonists, or ships passing in the night. Journal of Engineering Education, 102(3), 339-345.

  33. Finelli, C. J., Borrego, M., & Rasoulifar, G. (2015). Development of a taxonomy of keywords for engineering education research. Journal of Engineering Education, 104(4), 365-87. doi:10.1002/jee.20101.

  34. Gibbons, M. T. (2009). Engineering by the Numbers. Washington DC: American Society for Engineering Educaton.

  35. Google & Gallup. (2016). Diversity Gaps in Computer Science: Exploring the Underrepresentation of Girls, Blacks, and Hispanics. Retrieved from http://goo.gl/PG34aH.

  36. Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x.

  37. Gutman, L. M., Sameroff, A. J., Eccles, J. S. (2002). The academic achievement of African American students during early adolescence: An examination of multiple risk, promotive, and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(3), 367-99.

  38. Hayes, R. E. I. I. I. (2014). Understanding him in STEM: Sharing the stories of African American male scholars in engineering academic programs at a predominantly white university. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2014-99050-184&site=ehost-live.

  39. Hernandez, P. R., Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., Woodcock, A., & Chance, R. C. (2013). "Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM": Correction to Hernandez et al. (2013). Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1025. doi:10.1037/a0034254.

  40. James, K. L., Randall, N. P., & Haddaway, N. R. (2016). A methodology for systematic mapping in environmental sciences. Environmental Evidence. doi:10.1186/s13750-016-0059-6.

  41. Jamieson, L., & Lohmann, J. (2010). Creating a culture for scholarly and systematic innovation in engineering education: Ensuring U.S. engineering has the right people with the right talent for the global society. Retrieved from http://www.Asee.Org/about/Board/Committees/CCSSIE/.

  42. Jones, W. A. (2010). General education assessment at private historically Black colleges and universities: An exploratory study. The Journal of General Education, 59(1), 1-16.

  43. Kuo, L-J. (2009). Multi-proxy approach on black carbon characterization and combustion products source discrimination in environmental media (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global). ProQuest LLC, Texas A&M University.

  44. Lance, K. T., Georgiadou, Y. P., & Bregt, A. K. (2013). Opening the black box of donor influence on Digital Earth in Africa. International Journal of Digital Earth, 6(Sup2), 1-21. doi:10.1080/17538947.2012.699560.

  45. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174. Retrieved from internal-pdf://189.27.88.167/2529310.pdf.

  46. LeBreton, J. M., & Senter, J. L. (2008). Answers to 20 questions about interrater reliability and interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 815-852. Retrieved from internal-pdf://244.176.220.80/LeBreton Senter (2008).pdf.

  47. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Sheu, H.-B., Schmidt, J., Brenner, B. R., Gloster, C. S., Wilkins, G., Schmidt, L. C., Lyons, H., & Treistman, D. (2005). Social cognitive predictors of academic interests and goals in engineering: Utility for women and students at historically Black universities. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 84-92. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.1.84.

  48. Leonard, J., & Martin, D. B. (Eds.). (2013). The brilliance of Black children in mathematics: Beyond the numbers and toward new discourse. Charlotte, NC: Information Age. p. 398.

  49. London, J. (2018). A content analysis of how STEM education researchers discuss the impact of their publicly-supported research. International Journal of Engineering Education, 34(3), 1120-1137.

  50. London, J. S., Lee, W. C., Watford, B., Halkiyo, A. B., Pee, C. M., Holloman, T., Hawkins Ash, C. A. (2019). Toward a national agenda for broadening participation of African Americans in engineering and computer science: Highlighting barriers in the workforce. Paper submitted to the 2019 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Tampa, FL.

  51. Long III, L. L., Kitchen, J. A., & Henderson, T. S. (2015). Black male "Buoyant Believers" in engineering and engineering-related fields. Proceedings of 2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition American Society for Engineering Education. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.

  52. Ma, J., & Baum, S. (2016). Trends in community colleges: Enrollment, prices, student debt, and completion. College Board Research Brief, 4, 1-23.

  53. McGee, E. O., & Martin, D. B. (2011). "You would not believe what I have to go through to prove my intellectual value!" stereotype management among academically successful Black mathematics and engineering students. American Educational Research Journal, 48(6), 1347.

  54. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (2013). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

  55. Moore, J. L. I. I. I., Madison-Colomore, O., & Smith, D. M. (2003). The prove-them-wrong syndrome: Voices from unheard African-American males in engineering disciplines. The Journal of Men's Studies, 12(1), 61-73. doi:10.3149/jms.1201.61.

  56. National Academy of Engineering. (2014). Surmounting the barriers: Ethnic diversity in engineering education: Summary of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/18847.

  57. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm: Energizing and employing America for a brighter economic future. Washington, DC.

  58. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine. (2011). Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America's science and technology talent at the crossroads. Washington, DC. doi:10.17226/12984.

  59. National Research Council. (2001). From scarcity to visibility: Gender differences in the careers of doctoral scientists and engineers. Washington, DC.

  60. National Research Council. (2010). Gender differences at critical transitions in the careers of science, engineering, and mathematics faculty. Washington, DC.

  61. National Research Council. (2011). Expanding underrepresented minority participation: America's science and technology talent at the crossroads. Washington, DC.

  62. Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with Black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban Education, 38(4), 431-59.

  63. Ohland, M. W., Brawner, C. E., Camacho, M. M., Layton, R. A., Long, R. A., Lord, S. M., & Wasburn, M. H. (2011). Race, gender, and measures of success in engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 100(2), 225-252. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=508428375&site=ehost-live.

  64. Oliveira, A. (2010). Impacting students' interest in STEM fields: An electronic communication course for K-12 underrepresented students. Proceedings of 2010 Annual Conference and Exposition, American Society for Engineering Education. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.

  65. Pee, C. M., Lee, W. C., London, J. S., Jew, G., Holloman, T., Hawkins Ash, C., Watford, B. (2019). Indicators of African American participation: A critical review of publicly-available STEM data sources. Proceeding of the Annual Collaborative Network for Engineering and Computing Diversity (CoNECD) Conference, Crystal City, VA.

  66. Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2006). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

  67. Phillips, C., London, J., Lee, W., Van Epps, A., Watford, B. (2017). Reflections on the messiness of initiating a systematic literature review on broadening participation in engineering and computer science. Proceedings of Frontiers in Education Annual Conference, Indianapolis, IN.

  68. PRISMA Checklist. (2009). Retrieved February 1, 2017, from http://www.prisma-statement.org.

  69. Ramsey, S. B. (2013). The effect of the advanced placement training and incentive program on increasing enrollment and performance on advanced placement science exams. Humanities and Social Sciences. ProQuest Information & Learning, US. Retrieved from https://scholarscompass.vcu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3764&context=etd.

  70. Reid, K. W., Ross, M., & Yates, N. (2016). Paving the way: Institutional interventions for academic excellence and success in engineering. Alexandria, VA: National Society of Black Engineers.

  71. Rice, D. N., & Alfred, M. V. (2014). Personal and structural elements of support for African American female engineers. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 15(2), 40-9.

  72. Ritchie, S. M., Tobin, K., & Roth, W.-M. (2007). Transforming an academy through the enactment of collective curriculum leadership. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 39(2), 151-175. Retrieved from http://10.0.4.56/00220270600914850.

  73. Robinson, A., Perez-Quinones, M. A., & Scales, G. (2015). Understanding the attitudes of African American middle school girls toward computer science. Proceedings of 2015 Research in Equity and Sustained Participation in Engineering, Computing, and Technology (RESPECT). New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. doi:10.1109/RESPECT.2015.7296507.

  74. Robinson, W. H., McGee, E. O., Bentley, L. C., Houston, S. L., & Botchway, P. K. (2016). Addressing negative racial and gendered experiences that discourage academic careers in engineering. Computing in Science and Engineering, 18(2), 29-39. doi:10.1109/MCSE.2016.38.

  75. Smith, C. S., & Paretti, M. C. (2015). Understanding the mentoring needs of African-American female engineering students: A phenomenographic preliminary analysis. Proceedings of 2015 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition American Society for Engineering Education (vol. 122). Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education.

  76. Stevens, R., & Vinson, A. (2016). Institutional obstacles to ethnographic observation in engineering industry. New Orleans: American Society for Engineering Education.

  77. Su, L. K. (2010). Quantification of diversity in engineering higher education in the United States. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 16(2), 161-175. doi:10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.v16.i2.50.

  78. Suber, P. (2003). Removing the barriers to research: An introduction to open access for librarians. College & Research Libraries News, 64(2), 92-94(113).

  79. Terenzini, P. T., Lattuca, L. R., Ro, H. K., & Knight, D. B. (2014). America's overlooked engineers: Community colleges and diversity in undergraduate education. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280152557_America's_Overlooked_Engineers_Community_Colleges_and_Diversity_in_Engineering_Education.

  80. Tinsley, H. E. A., & Weiss, D. J. (2000). Interrater reliability and agreement. In H. E. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 95-124). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

  81. Tomasko, D. L., Ridgway, J. S., Waller, R. J., & Olesik, S. V. (2016). Association of summer bridge program outcomes with STEM retention of targeted demographic groups. Journal of College Science Teaching, 45(4), 90-99.

  82. UGA graduate school to fund research on completion rates of doctoral students. (2004). Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(22), 22. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=15515172&site=ehost-live.

  83. Weinberger, C. J. (2014). Engineering educational opportunity: Impacts of 1970s and 1980s policies to increase the share of Black college graduates with major in engineering or computer science. NBER Working Paper No. w23703.

  84. Yoder, B. L. (2017). Engineering by the numbers. Washington, DC: American Society for Engineering Education. Retrieved from https://www.asee.org/documents/papers-and-publications/publications/college-profiles/2017-Engineering-by-Numbers-Engineering-Statistics.pdf.


Articles with similar content:

INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS
Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol.18, 2012, issue 1
Jeffrey M. Valla, Wendy Williams
SPECIAL ISSUE: DESIGNING IMPLANT TRIALS
GUEST EDITOR: MOHIT BHANDARI
Preface: Designing Implant Trials in 2010: A Recipe for Success

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.19, 2009, issue 3
Mohit Bhandari
Health at the Frontier of the Post-Aging Society
Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal, Vol.2, 2011, issue 3
Alexander E.T. Finlayson, Faisal R. Ali
Challenges in Conducting Multicenter, Multicultural, and Multilingual Trials: A View from the Literature and Real-Life Experience Reports
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.23, 2013, issue 2-03
Diarmuid De Faoite, Beate Hanson
Ethical Safeguards for Industry-Funded Research in an Academic Setting
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.18, 2008, issue 2
Fred R. T Nelson, Nancy Hay