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Visualization of Mechanical Processes: An International Online Journal


ISSN En ligne: 2152-209X

Archives: Volume 1, 2011 to Volume 9, 2019

Visualization of Mechanical Processes: An International Online Journal

DOI: 10.1615/VisMechProc.2019029545

REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO-PHASE IMMISCIBLE LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW IN HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED PIPES

Nasser Alahmed
State University of Campinas
Marcelo Souza de Castro
Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of Campinas R. Mendeleyev, 200 – Cidade Universitária, Campinas – SP, 13083-860, Brazil

RÉSUMÉ

In a wide range of operations in the petroleum industry, co-current flow of two immiscible liquids commonly occurs; therefore, an in-depth knowledge regarding these phenomena is highly necessary to predict the flow behavior during production and transportation of oil in pipeline systems. To this end, numerous researchers have applied different experimental techniques for the characterization of liquid-liquid flows in horizontal and inclined pipes. For reliable design methods, this paper reviews some of the existing experimental techniques and their applications, strengths, and limitations and gives some direction for future studies. Two main aspects of these approaches have been abundantly discussed, with an emphasis on the second one: the first section focuses on fluid physical properties and geometrical and operational variables of liquid-liquid flow experimental systems; the second one reviews the main two-phase immiscible liquid-liquid characterization methods used for flow pattern identification, velocity, and phase distribution measurements, including optical-based, irradiation, electrical, and thermal methods.