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Neuropathological Diseases

ISSN Imprimer: 2160-2468
ISSN En ligne: 2160-2476

Archives: Volume 1, 2012 to Volume 2, 2013

Neuropathological Diseases

DOI: 10.1615/NeuropatholDiseases.v1.i2.10
pages 95-122

An Overview of Parkinson's Disease and Oxidative Stress: Herbal Scenario

Richard L. Jayaraj
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Tamilnadu, India
D. John Ravindar
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Tamilnadu, India
K. Manigandan
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Tamilnadu, India
Pavan Kumar Padarthi
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Tamilnadu, India
Elangovan Namasivayam
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Tamilnadu, India


The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is increasing day by day and poses a great threat to the elderly population. Its main neuropathological feature is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). However, the pathogenesis of PD is not understood fully. Clinical, experimental, microanatomic, and biochemical evidence suggest PD involves multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration. The SNpc is uniquely vulnerable to oxidative damage, having a high content of oxidizable dopamine, neuromelanin, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron, and relatively low antioxidant complement with high metabolic rate. The aim of this review is to bring out the incidence of PD in India compared to that of Europe. Since ancient times plants have been valued for their medicinal properties, and many cultures still rely on plants as their major source of medicine. In this review we discuss the role of Indian medicinal plants in countering free-radical damage and also give you a glimpse about the clinical and pathological features of PD, available treatments, their drawbacks, and future challenges to overcome PD.

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