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Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics
SJR: 0.309 SNIP: 0.041 CiteScore™: 0.18

ISSN Imprimer: 2151-8017
ISSN En ligne: 2151-8025

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 7, 2016

Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

DOI: 10.1615/ForumImmunDisTher.2013008299
pages 79-92

Roles Each of Snail, Yin Yang 1, and RKIP in the Regulation of Tumor Cells Chemo- Immuno-Resistance to Apoptosis

Benjamin Bonavida
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1747
Ali R. Jazirehi
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center; and Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Mario I. Vega
Oncology Research Unit, Oncology Hospital Siglo XXI National Medical Center IMSS, Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Division, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
Sara Huerta-Yepez
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, USA; Unidad de Investigacion en Enfermedades Oncologicas, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Federico Gomez, SSA, Mexico City, Mexico
Stavroula Baritaki
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Jonnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California(UCLA), USA

RÉSUMÉ

The current anti-cancer therapeutic armamentarium consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy, and combinations thereof. Initial treatments usually result in objective clinical responses with prolongation of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in a large subset of the treated patients. However, at the onset, a subset of patients does not respond, and another subset initially responds but experiences relapses and recurrences. These latter subsets of patients develop a state of crossresistance to a variety of unrelated therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to first unravel the underlying mechanisms of resistance and associated gene products that regulate the cross-resistance. Such gene products represent potential therapeutic targets as well as potential prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers. In this context, we have identified three interrelated gene products involved in resistance, namely, Snail, YY1, and RKIP that are components of the dysregulated NF-κB/Snail/YY1/RKIP loop in many cancers. In this review, we discuss the roles each of Snail, YY1, and RKIP in the regulation of tumor cell resistance to chemo- and immunotherapies. Because these gene products have also been shown to be involved in the regulation of the EMT phenotype and metastasis, we hypothesize that targeting any of these gene products can simultaneously inhibit tumor cell resistance and metastasis.


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