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Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics
SJR: 0.309 SNIP: 0.041 CiteScore™: 0.18

ISSN Imprimer: 2151-8017
ISSN En ligne: 2151-8025

Archives: Volume 1, 2010 to Volume 7, 2016

Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics

DOI: 10.1615/ForumImmunDisTher.2013007833
pages 253-259

Stable Water Clusters−Mediated Molecular Alterations in Human Melanoma Cell Lines

Benjamin Bonavida
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, & Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Johnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1747
Stavroula Baritaki
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Jonnson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California(UCLA), USA


Several reports have shown that the formation of stable water clusters (SWC) of different sizes underlie their physical and chemical properties, such as temperature-related density and anomalous melting at high temperature. Among the SWCs, one produces a double helix (DH), a structure that has been studied in a variety of biological systems. The major objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of SWCs on several phenotypic and molecular characteristics of human cancer cell lines. Our previous findings have demonstrated that very high dilutions of chemical/biological agents, while having no direct observed effects on human cellular systems, can nevertheless induce molecular and genetic changes that contribute to signaling by other stimuli. These findings suggested that cells can respond to relatively fewer molecules than physiological levels comprising of high number of molecules. Accordingly, we hypothesized that treatment of cells with a water preparation containing SWCs would induce molecular and genetic changes in human cellular systems. This hypothesis was tested using human melanoma cell lines as a model for an in vitro analysis. We examined the effect of SWCs on cell viability, proliferation, expression of immune death receptors and response to deathligand−induced apoptosis. In addition, we examined whether genetic changes might have also taken place. The preliminary findings demonstrate that treatment of melanoma cell lines with SWCs inhibits cell proliferation, upregulates the expression of death receptors, sensitizes the tumor cells to FasL-induced apoptosis, and selectively modifies gene products that regulate growth and the apoptotic pathways.

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