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Journal of Porous Media
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ISSN Imprimer: 1091-028X
ISSN En ligne: 1934-0508

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Journal of Porous Media

DOI: 10.1615/JPorMedia.v17.i6.30
pages 503-520

PORE NETWORK MODELING FOR PREDICTION OF RESIDUAL GAS SATURATION IN WATER INVASION PROCESS

Mahnaz Hekmatzadeh
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran; IOR Research Institute, Research and Technology Directorate, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran
Mitra Dadvar
Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mohammadali Emadi
IOR Research Institute, Research and Technology Directorate, National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran

RÉSUMÉ

In water encroachment processes a high amount of gas is trapped behind the gas and water contact in water drive gas reservoirs as residual gas saturation (RGS). Gas and water imbibition has been experimentally studied in core scale to determine RGS in previous studies. However, modeling of the imbibition process has only been developed for oil−water systems. Core experiments could not precisely estimate the important parameters that affect RGS. Gas trapping is influenced by displacement mechanisms at the pore scale. For the first time, a three-dimensional pore network model is presented to study gas−water displacement in drainage and imbibition processes in pore scale. This study describes a new dynamic pore network algorithm for imbibition that updates pressure and saturation implicitly to study the transient nature of water film flow and snap-off occurrence and recognizes the important parameters affecting RGS at pore scale. The network model is used to study the effect of different parameters such as pore morphology, initial water saturation (IWS), temperature, pressure, and flow rate on RGS. The results indicate that pore morphology affects formation of the frontal displacement advances or the snap-off events and it is the main reason for the nonunique correlation between RGS and petrophysical properties. Temperature and pressure conditions also affect RGS, and determining RGS at room temperature and atmospheric pressure causes error. For example, the results of increasing pore cross-section angularity and increasing pore radius size are not compatible with the previous results. The increase in the flow rate and capillary number causes a reduction in the number of snap-off events and RGS for the same aspect ratio (AR), while RGS is more sensitive to flow rate at higher AR. At low capillary numbers, variation of AR strongly affects RGS and the number of snap-off events, while at high capillary numbers, RGS is nearly independent of AR. Moreover, the critical capillary number in gas−water displacement is around 10−8, while in oil-water systems it is about 10−5.


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