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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.243 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Imprimer: 0278-940X
ISSN En ligne: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2018025112
pages 33-52

Lung and Heart Sounds Analysis: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends

Ana L. Padilla-Ortiz
CONACyT-CICESE, Unidad Monterrey, Alianza Centro 504, PIIT Apodaca, 66629, México; ITESM Campus Ciudad de México, Calle del Puente 222, Col. Ejidos de Huipulco, Ciudad de México 14380, México
David Ibarra
Tecnológico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnológico, C.P. 64849 Monterrey, Nuevo León, México; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA, 02139


Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively. In this article, we review the research conducted during the last six years on lung and heart sounds, instrumentation and data sources (sensors and databases), technological advances, and perspectives in processing and data analysis. Our review suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are the most common respiratory diseases reported on in the literature; related diseases that are less analyzed include chronic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, congestive heart failure, and parenchymal pathology. Some new findings regarding the methodologies associated with advances in the electronic stethoscope have been presented for the auscultatory heart sound signaling process, including analysis and clarification of resulting sounds to create a diagnosis based on a quantifiable medical assessment. The availability of automatic interpretation of high precision of heart and lung sounds opens interesting possibilities for cardiovascular diagnosis as well as potential for intelligent diagnosis of heart and lung diseases.

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